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Table 4 The results of subgroup analysis by characteristics of the population

From: Awareness and knowledge about human papillomavirus vaccination and its acceptance in China: a meta-analysis of 58 observational studies

Subgroups No. of studies Incidence % (95 % CI) I 2 (%) P value
Awareness (all studies)
 Age     0.698
  CS 12 19.07 (11.72,27.71) 99.0  
  A 27 15.14 (11.11,19.68) 99.1  
  P 5 15.62 (13.13,18.28) 85.4  
 Sex     0.033
  Fa 23 17.39 (13.06,22.20) 98.8  
  F, Ma 17 18.55 (14.14,23.42) 98.8  
  Mb 3 1.82 (0.50,11.20) 98.5  
 Sample method     0.504
  Randomized 16 18.88 (13.60,24.80) 99.0  
  Cluster 16 13.74 (7.66,21.24) 99.1  
  Convenience 12 16.03 (12.12,20.36) 97.7  
 Ethnicity     0.017
  Han 29 20.17 (16.42,24.20) 98.3  
  Mixed 15 9.61 (5.95,14.03) 99.0  
 Region     0.031
  EDAa 20 17.57 (13.36,22.21) 98.0  
  CLDAa 12 17.78 (12.18,24.19) 97.6  
  WUDAb 5 1.80 (0.02,6.33) 98.9  
Knowledge (all studies)
 Age     0.171
  CS 10 40.94 (20.11,63.64) 99.8  
  A 11 15.52 (10.22,21.69) 98.7  
  P 1 16.27   
 Sex     0.841
  F 13 27.2 (17.56,38.07) 99.5  
  F, M 9 24.51 (10.28,42.45) 99.7  
  M 0    
 Sample method     0.757
  Randomized 11 29.87 (13.02,50.19) 99.7  
  Cluster 7 19.16 (12.41,26.98) 98.7  
  Convenience 0    
 Ethnicity     0.893
  Han 14 25.40 (14.41,38.28) 99.4  
  Mixed 8 27.46 (13.87,43.62) 99.8  
 Region     0.837
  EDA 8 19.58 (11.76,28.82) 98.6  
  CLDA 9 27.80 (11.97,47.20) 99.7  
  WUDA 2 13.96 (2.44,32.70) 99.7  
Acceptability (for themselves)
 Age     0.338
  CS 10 71.71 (64.06,78.77) 97.9  
  A 24 64.82 (52.80,75.95) 99.9  
  P 2 44.92 (26.00,64.63) 98.7  
 Sex     0.208
  F 21 68.50 (54.40,81.05) 99.9  
  F, M 15 61.65 (52.47,70.43) 99.4  
  M 0    
 Sample method     0.022
  Randomized 12 70.42 (63.63,76.79) 98.8  
  Clustera 12 72.45 (52.22,88.76) 99.9  
  Convenienceb 12 53.53 (41.95,64.92) 99.5  
 Ethnicity     0.939
  Han 24 65.14 (53.62,75.83) 99.8  
  Mixed 12 66.76 (51.25,80.60) 99.7  
 Region     0.407
  EDA 14 65.31 (54.68,75.21) 99.2  
  CLDA 12 64.10 (46.56,79.87) 99.7  
  WUDA 3 82.15 (35.87,99.68) 99.9  
Acceptability (for daughters)
 Age     0.014
  CS 1 38.61   
  Aa 10 64.72 (55.57,73.36) 99.2  
  Pb 3 33.78 (26.26,41.74) 88.3  
 Sex     0.068
  F 8 67.04 (57.46,75.96) 99.2  
  F, M 4 46.06 (27.07,65.66) 97.6  
  M 0    
 Sample method     0.038
  Randomizeda 5 72.75 (67.66,77.56) 92.9  
  Clusterb 6 48.54 (32.37,64.88) 99.4  
  Convenience 3 56.36 (34.63,76.88) 98.8  
 Ethnicity     0.253
  Han 8 57.84 (47.89,67.48) 99.5  
  Mixed 6 61.04 (44.36,76.50) 99.3  
 Region     0.689
  EDA 6 59.03 (41.51,75.44) 98.9  
  CLDA 4 56.36 (37.18,74.60) 99.3  
  WUDA 2 51.49 (33.81,68.97) 99.3  
  1. There were significant differences in groups with different letters (P < 0.05)
  2. The pooled rate and 95 % CI are from random effects model
  3. A adults, P parents, CS college students