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Table 1 Coding framework

From: Creating symbolic cultures of consumption: an analysis of the content of sports wagering advertisements in Australia

Theme/ Symbol Generic definition Applicability to study of sports wagering advertisements
Themes based on existing literature
Adventure, Thrill and Risk Appeals that centre on adventure, freedom, thrill and risk taking activities [44]. Sports wagering is an activity designed for those who love an adrenaline rush, who take risks, and who are adventurous.
Gender Stereotypes Appeals that reinforce hegemonic masculinity or sex roles [4244, 62]. Makes reference to the gender stereotypical male, and promotes that such ideals can be achieved via product consumption, e.g. strength, boldness, muscled, driven, handsome, strong, stoic, powerful (power relations between men/women) - ‘real men gamble.’
Mateship and Peer Bonding Appeals centred upon peer belonging and social bonding, e.g. The depiction of mates in humorous scenarios together/ ‘friendly belittlement’ of one’s mate [58]. Sports wagering brings ‘mates’ together, and is an important element to peer group belonging, e.g. set in a pub, groups gathered enjoying a drink.
Patriotism The concept of group loyalty extended to community and to country [44, 62]. Sports wagering is a great way to show pride in, support for, and loyalty towards one’s country.
Sexualised Imagery Eroticized portrayals of women or men, including acts, gestures, clothing or hidden meanings, that accentuated sexual objectification [65]. Individuals who gamble are sexually successful, admired by, and confident with the opposite sex.
Social Status Appeals centred upon improving or enhancing social status [48]. Individuals who gamble encompass what society considers successful –popular, wealthy, confident, attractive and influential.
Winning The notion that winning money via gambling is easy and life-changing [46]. It is easy to feel accomplished (victorious) when wagering on sports, easy wins, and generous bonuses and rewards.
Themes developed from inductive analysis
Happiness Appeals of excitement, happiness and elation. Wagering on sports makes you happy. Wagering on sports is fun.
Power and Control Appeals of empowerment, superiority and control. The portrayal that suggests individuals who gamble are powerful, wealthy and in control of their life. Additionally, implications that mobile wagering, coupled with increased betting options, aid in punting control.
Sports Fan Rituals and Behaviours Sports fan behaviours as expressed by team colours and jerseys, crowd cheer, live matches, and sporting legends. Sports wagering shows pride in, support for, and loyalty towards one’s sporting team. The fan experience is heightened when wagering is embedded in the established rituals of sports enthusiasts.