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Table 3 Comparison of biochemical profiles among the female Orang Asli and female Urban Malays

From: Increased risks of cardiovascular diseases and insulin resistance among the Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia

Biochemical profiles Asian Reference range Orang Asli (female)   CV
  Inland Periphery  
  Semai
(n = 24)
Bateq
(n = 4)
Lanoh
(n = 11)
Kanaq
(n = 9)
Kensiu
(n = 39)
Che Wong (n = 19) Malay
(n = 89)
Lipid profile  
   TC, mmol/La Mean (SD) 4.35
(0.92)
4.35 (0.71) 4.90 (1.22) 4.91
(0.69)
4.60 (0.98) 5.28 (1.37)c 5.20 (0.85)c,h 0.81
   % of the subjects >5.2 25.00 0 45.45 33.33 25.64 47.37 49.44
   HDL-C, mmol/Lb Mean (SD) 1.10
(0.40)
1.45
(0.10)c
1.20 (0.60) 0.90
(0.30)c,d
0.90
(0.20)c,d
1.20
(0.60)g,h
1.70 (0.50)c,e,g,h,i 1.13
   % of the subjects <1.0 16.67 0 36.36 66.67 51.28 31.58 1.12
   LDL-C, mmol/La Mean (SD) 2.77
(0.74)
2.58 (0.53) 3.16 (1.01) 3.38
(0.62)
3.09 (0.93) 3.55 (1.05) 3.15 (0.78) 1.10
   % of the subjects >4.1 (very high risk) 4.17 0 18.18 33.33 10.26 21.05 14.77
<4.1 (high risk) 16.67 0 27.27 11.11 33.33 31.58 20.45
<3.4
(moderate)
45.83 50.00 36.36 55.56 17.95 31.58 43.18
<2.6 (low risk) 33.33 50.00 18.18 0 38.46 15.79 21.59
   TG, mmol/Lb Mean (SD) 0.85
(0.80)
0.60 (0.50) 1.00 (0.80) 1.40
(0.50)c,d
0.90
(0.70)g
0.80 (0.50)g 0.70 (0.40)g,h 1.60
   % of the subjects >1.7 16.67 0 18.18 11.11 10.26 15.79 3.37
Endocrine tests  
   FBG, mmol/Lb Mean (SD) 4.80
(0.70)
5.95 (0.40) 5.40
(1.10)c,d
4.90
(0.50)c,i
4.90
(1.20/
4.90
(1.30)c,h
4.90 (0.50)c,h,i 0.38
   % of the subjects 3.5–6.0
(normal)
91.67 50.00 72.72 62.50 83.33 94.74 100.00
6.1–6.9
(IFG)
8.33 50.00 27.27 25.00 5.56 5.26 0
>7.0 (DM) 0 0 0 12.50 11.11 0 0
   HbAlc, %a Mean (SD) 5.05
(0.31)
5.03 (0.47) 5.33 (0.29) - 5.43
(0.30)c
5.16 (0.21)h 5.35 (0.24)c 0.80
   % of the subjects <4.8 17.39 33.33 0 - 0 0 0
4.8–5.9 82.61 66.67 90.91 - 94.44 100.00 98.86
>5.9 0 0 9.09 - 5.55 0 1.14
   Insulin, pmol/Lb Mean (SD) 52.40
(85.00)
62.30
(82.30)
133.80
(157.80)c,d
19.90
(33.80)c,i
47.2
(76.00)g,i
169.30
(368.30)c,g,h
47.10 (34.50)e,g,i 1.70
   % of the subjects <17.8 0 25.00 0 22.22 20.51 0 3.37
17.8–173.0 91.67 75.00 63.64 66.67 10.53 52.63 94.38
>173.0 8.33 0 36.36 0 72.22 47.37 0
   hs-CRP, nmol/Lb Mean (SD) 8.70
(19.30)
27.60
(44.30)
32.40
(42.90)
16.2
(98.10)
5.00
(19.30)c
9.40 (37.20) 5.70 (10.00)c,i 0.60
   % of the subjects <9.5 (low risk) 54.17 50.00 36.36 33.33 17.95 52.63 15.73
9.5–28.6
(moderate)
33.33 0 9.09 22.22 64.10 15.79 70.79
>28.6 (high risk) 12.50 50.00 54.55 44.44 17.95 31.58 13.48
Renal profile  
   Urea, mmol/La <8.3 3.25
(0.88)
3.93 (0.74) 3.47 (1.72) 3.09
(105)
2.82 (0.96) 3.32 (0.67) 3.25 (0.80) 2.30
   Creatinine, <80 58.92 66.00 62.91 83.78(12.4 58.87(11.4 71.68(14.94 57.42(7.20)e,g 3.10
   micromol/La   (8.97) (19.51) (21.48) 3)c 1)g )   
   Sodium, mmol/Lb 136.0–145.0 139.95
(2.60)
140.00(8.80) 138.00
(3.00)c
138.00
(2.50)c
142.00
(8.60)i
140.70
(3.50)g,i
137.00
(2.00)c,e,g,h
0.24
   Potassium nmol/La 3.5–5.1 4.00
(0.25)
3.53 (0.57) 3.53
(0.21)c
4.10
(0.17)i
3.78
(0.47)g
4.13
(0.35)h,i
4.69 (0.45)c,e,g,h,i 0.44
Liver function tests  
   Albumin, g/Lb 35.0–52.0 44.45
(2.90)
45.90
(3.20)c
46.20
(4.70)c
46.20
(2.90)
44.50
(3.00)d,g,i
48.90
(3.60)c,g,h
49.20 (3.70)g,h,i 1.90
   Total protein, g/Lb 66.0–87.0 73.45
(5.40)
77.45
(56.90)
81.70
(4.20)c,d
77.80
(3.80)c,i
75.20
(5.30)i
79.10
(6.50)c,h
77.40 (6.70)c,h,i 1.12
   ALP, U/La 35.0–104.0 79.76
(19.00)
92.55
(26.00)
89.80
(22.14)
76.86
(16.55)
80.06
(27.82)
73.73
(26.31)
60.18
(16.41)cdhi
1.60
   ALT, U/La <33.0 16.60
(7.17)
14.98
(14.82)
13.59
(21.12)c
9.17
(6.61)
14.25
(9.38)
27.31
(28.83)g,i
11.80 (7.74)c,e 1.00
   Direct bilirubin, pmol/Lb <5.1 2.00
(110)
2.20 (2.20) 2.80
(2.20)c
- 0.80
(1.00)c,d,i
0.90
(0.40)c,d,i
2.40 (1.20)c,e,h 6.40
   Total bilirubin, pmol/La <21.0 8.49
(3.30)
6.90 (2.95) 9.51 (5.52) - 3.39
(2.15)c,i
4.43
(1.46)c,h,i
7.04 (2.91)c,h,i 0.46
   GGT, U/Lb <40.0 14.45
(13.90)
23.70
(52.80)
15.80
(25.10)
8.20
(8..80)c
20.90
(25.70)g
17.40
(20.60)g
10.30 (6.10)c,d,e,h 1.80
   Ferritin, pmol/Lb 29.2–337.1 167.20
(149.50)
35.05
(84.60)
86.70
(152.60)c,d
50.80 (145.10)c,i 54.40
(114.70)g,i
40.90
(46.10)c,g,h
96.00
(118.60)e,g,i
1.80
  1. SD standard deviation, TC total cholesterol, HDL-c high density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-c low density lipoprotein cholesterol, TG triglyceride, FBG fasting plasma glucose, HbAlc glycated haemoglobin, hs-CRP high-sensitive C-reactive protein, ALP alkaline phosphatase, ALT alanine transaminase, GGT gamma-glutamyltransferase
  2. aExpressed as mean and standard deviation
  3. bExpressed as median and interquartile range due to skewed distribution, and the p-value was based on variance analysis Kruskal Wallis or Mann Whitney test
  4. cp < 0.05 as compared to Semai
  5. dp < 0.05 as compared to Bateq
  6. ep < 0.05 as compared to Che Wong
  7. fp < 0.05 as compared to Malays
  8. gp < 0.05 as compared to Kanaq
  9. hp < 0.05 as compared to Kensiu
  10. ip < 0.05 as compared to Lanoh