Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 3 Comparison of biochemical profiles among the female Orang Asli and female Urban Malays

From: Increased risks of cardiovascular diseases and insulin resistance among the Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia

Biochemical profiles Asian Reference range Orang Asli (female)   CV
  Inland Periphery  
  Semai (n = 24) Bateq (n = 4) Lanoh (n = 11) Kanaq (n = 9) Kensiu (n = 39) Che Wong (n = 19) Malay (n = 89)
Lipid profile  
   TC, mmol/La Mean (SD) 4.35 (0.92) 4.35 (0.71) 4.90 (1.22) 4.91 (0.69) 4.60 (0.98) 5.28 (1.37)c 5.20 (0.85)c,h 0.81
   % of the subjects >5.2 25.00 0 45.45 33.33 25.64 47.37 49.44
   HDL-C, mmol/Lb Mean (SD) 1.10 (0.40) 1.45 (0.10)c 1.20 (0.60) 0.90 (0.30)c,d 0.90 (0.20)c,d 1.20 (0.60)g,h 1.70 (0.50)c,e,g,h,i 1.13
   % of the subjects <1.0 16.67 0 36.36 66.67 51.28 31.58 1.12
   LDL-C, mmol/La Mean (SD) 2.77 (0.74) 2.58 (0.53) 3.16 (1.01) 3.38 (0.62) 3.09 (0.93) 3.55 (1.05) 3.15 (0.78) 1.10
   % of the subjects >4.1 (very high risk) 4.17 0 18.18 33.33 10.26 21.05 14.77
<4.1 (high risk) 16.67 0 27.27 11.11 33.33 31.58 20.45
<3.4 (moderate) 45.83 50.00 36.36 55.56 17.95 31.58 43.18
<2.6 (low risk) 33.33 50.00 18.18 0 38.46 15.79 21.59
   TG, mmol/Lb Mean (SD) 0.85 (0.80) 0.60 (0.50) 1.00 (0.80) 1.40 (0.50)c,d 0.90 (0.70)g 0.80 (0.50)g 0.70 (0.40)g,h 1.60
   % of the subjects >1.7 16.67 0 18.18 11.11 10.26 15.79 3.37
Endocrine tests  
   FBG, mmol/Lb Mean (SD) 4.80 (0.70) 5.95 (0.40) 5.40 (1.10)c,d 4.90 (0.50)c,i 4.90 (1.20/ 4.90 (1.30)c,h 4.90 (0.50)c,h,i 0.38
   % of the subjects 3.5–6.0 (normal) 91.67 50.00 72.72 62.50 83.33 94.74 100.00
6.1–6.9 (IFG) 8.33 50.00 27.27 25.00 5.56 5.26 0
>7.0 (DM) 0 0 0 12.50 11.11 0 0
   HbAlc, %a Mean (SD) 5.05 (0.31) 5.03 (0.47) 5.33 (0.29) - 5.43 (0.30)c 5.16 (0.21)h 5.35 (0.24)c 0.80
   % of the subjects <4.8 17.39 33.33 0 - 0 0 0
4.8–5.9 82.61 66.67 90.91 - 94.44 100.00 98.86
>5.9 0 0 9.09 - 5.55 0 1.14
   Insulin, pmol/Lb Mean (SD) 52.40 (85.00) 62.30 (82.30) 133.80 (157.80)c,d 19.90 (33.80)c,i 47.2 (76.00)g,i 169.30 (368.30)c,g,h 47.10 (34.50)e,g,i 1.70
   % of the subjects <17.8 0 25.00 0 22.22 20.51 0 3.37
17.8–173.0 91.67 75.00 63.64 66.67 10.53 52.63 94.38
>173.0 8.33 0 36.36 0 72.22 47.37 0
   hs-CRP, nmol/Lb Mean (SD) 8.70 (19.30) 27.60 (44.30) 32.40 (42.90) 16.2 (98.10) 5.00 (19.30)c 9.40 (37.20) 5.70 (10.00)c,i 0.60
   % of the subjects <9.5 (low risk) 54.17 50.00 36.36 33.33 17.95 52.63 15.73
9.5–28.6 (moderate) 33.33 0 9.09 22.22 64.10 15.79 70.79
>28.6 (high risk) 12.50 50.00 54.55 44.44 17.95 31.58 13.48
Renal profile  
   Urea, mmol/La <8.3 3.25 (0.88) 3.93 (0.74) 3.47 (1.72) 3.09 (105) 2.82 (0.96) 3.32 (0.67) 3.25 (0.80) 2.30
   Creatinine, <80 58.92 66.00 62.91 83.78(12.4 58.87(11.4 71.68(14.94 57.42(7.20)e,g 3.10
   micromol/La   (8.97) (19.51) (21.48) 3)c 1)g )   
   Sodium, mmol/Lb 136.0–145.0 139.95 (2.60) 140.00(8.80) 138.00 (3.00)c 138.00 (2.50)c 142.00 (8.60)i 140.70 (3.50)g,i 137.00 (2.00)c,e,g,h 0.24
   Potassium nmol/La 3.5–5.1 4.00 (0.25) 3.53 (0.57) 3.53 (0.21)c 4.10 (0.17)i 3.78 (0.47)g 4.13 (0.35)h,i 4.69 (0.45)c,e,g,h,i 0.44
Liver function tests  
   Albumin, g/Lb 35.0–52.0 44.45 (2.90) 45.90 (3.20)c 46.20 (4.70)c 46.20 (2.90) 44.50 (3.00)d,g,i 48.90 (3.60)c,g,h 49.20 (3.70)g,h,i 1.90
   Total protein, g/Lb 66.0–87.0 73.45 (5.40) 77.45 (56.90) 81.70 (4.20)c,d 77.80 (3.80)c,i 75.20 (5.30)i 79.10 (6.50)c,h 77.40 (6.70)c,h,i 1.12
   ALP, U/La 35.0–104.0 79.76 (19.00) 92.55 (26.00) 89.80 (22.14) 76.86 (16.55) 80.06 (27.82) 73.73 (26.31) 60.18 (16.41)cdhi 1.60
   ALT, U/La <33.0 16.60 (7.17) 14.98 (14.82) 13.59 (21.12)c 9.17 (6.61) 14.25 (9.38) 27.31 (28.83)g,i 11.80 (7.74)c,e 1.00
   Direct bilirubin, pmol/Lb <5.1 2.00 (110) 2.20 (2.20) 2.80 (2.20)c - 0.80 (1.00)c,d,i 0.90 (0.40)c,d,i 2.40 (1.20)c,e,h 6.40
   Total bilirubin, pmol/La <21.0 8.49 (3.30) 6.90 (2.95) 9.51 (5.52) - 3.39 (2.15)c,i 4.43 (1.46)c,h,i 7.04 (2.91)c,h,i 0.46
   GGT, U/Lb <40.0 14.45 (13.90) 23.70 (52.80) 15.80 (25.10) 8.20 (8..80)c 20.90 (25.70)g 17.40 (20.60)g 10.30 (6.10)c,d,e,h 1.80
   Ferritin, pmol/Lb 29.2–337.1 167.20 (149.50) 35.05 (84.60) 86.70 (152.60)c,d 50.80 (145.10)c,i 54.40 (114.70)g,i 40.90 (46.10)c,g,h 96.00 (118.60)e,g,i 1.80
  1. SD standard deviation, TC total cholesterol, HDL-c high density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-c low density lipoprotein cholesterol, TG triglyceride, FBG fasting plasma glucose, HbAlc glycated haemoglobin, hs-CRP high-sensitive C-reactive protein, ALP alkaline phosphatase, ALT alanine transaminase, GGT gamma-glutamyltransferase
  2. aExpressed as mean and standard deviation
  3. bExpressed as median and interquartile range due to skewed distribution, and the p-value was based on variance analysis Kruskal Wallis or Mann Whitney test
  4. cp < 0.05 as compared to Semai
  5. dp < 0.05 as compared to Bateq
  6. ep < 0.05 as compared to Che Wong
  7. fp < 0.05 as compared to Malays
  8. gp < 0.05 as compared to Kanaq
  9. hp < 0.05 as compared to Kensiu
  10. ip < 0.05 as compared to Lanoh