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Table 3 Summary of included studies. Caption: a summary of the studies included in the review, including details of sample size, the source of the sample, year of data collection, vaccine investigated, target age group, delivery strategy, completion rate attained and factors investigated to influence completion

From: Factors influencing completion of multi-dose vaccine schedules in adolescents: a systematic review

Author; date Sample size Country; source of sample Year of data collection Vaccine Vaccine target age group Vaccine delivery strategy Completion rate Factors investigated to influence completion
Bednarczyk, R; et al. 2011 588 USA. New York state University health clinics and classrooms: self-report questionnaire. 2010 HPV 11–12 (with catch up to 26) Available at routine healthcare provider 79 % Qualitative interviews
Carlos, R; et al. 2010 232 USA. Mailed questionnaire to attendees of breast and cervical cancer screening clinics (maternal report). 2010 HPV 11–12 (with catch up to 26) Available at routine healthcare provider 19 % Race
Cassidy, W; Mahoney, F. 1995 654 USA. School and administrative data. 1994-5 HBV School grades 6–8 School-based clinic 82 % Gender, race
Chao, C; Slezak, J; et al. 2009 18,275 USA. Electronic health records from KPSC managed care organisation. 2006-8 HPV 9–26 Available at routine healthcare provider 43 % Maternal characteristics: history of at least 1 Pap test in the past 3 years, history of abnormal pap test result, history of genital warts/ other STIs, SES (neighbourhood median household income, neighbourhood average adult education)
Chao, C; Velicer, C; et al. 2009 34,193 USA. Electronic health records from KPSC managed care organisation. 2006-8 HPV 9–26 Available at routine healthcare provider 41 % age, race, socioeconomic status (census block neighbourhood statistics, medicaid eligibility), provider characteristics, health care utilization, women's health related conditions, chronic illness
Chou, B; et al. 2011 1413 USA. Electronic health records from ambulatory care clinics (4) associated with a University. 2007-8 HPV 11–12 (with catch up to 26) Available at routine healthcare provider 33 % Age, insurance (private/public), provider characteristics (location, practice type (pediatrics, gynaecology or family practice)), race (White, African American, Hispanic).
Cleves, M. 1998 520 USA. Medical records. 1995-6 HBV 11–19 Available at routine healthcare provider 33 % Age, race, insurance, sexual activity, risk behaviour (drug use)
Cook, R; et al. 2010 11,986 USA. Medicaid administrative data. 2006-8 HPV 9–20 Available at routine healthcare provider 27 % Age, race, provider of first shot, insurance (months of medicaid enrollment), sexual activity.
Crosby, R; et al. 2011 209 USA. University of Kentucky, rural community college and rural health clinic attendees 2007-8 HPV 9–26 Available at routine healthcare provider 56 % urban Geography (rural/urban location)
10 % rural
Deeks, S; Johnson, I. 1998 39,935 Canada. Administrative data from Health units (7), Greater Toronto Area 1994-5 HBV School Grade 7 School-based delivery 95 % School characteristics, knowledge/ education/mobilisation
Dempsey, A; et al. 2010 2625 USA. Health records from 20 university-affiliated health clinics, Michigan 2007-8 HPV 9–26 Available at routine healthcare provider 15 % Age, insurance, race
Dempsey, A; et al. 2012 1714 USA. Health records from 20 university-affiliated health clinics, Michigan 2008-9 HPV 9–26 Available at routine healthcare provider 53 % Age, insurance, race
Dorell, C; et al. 2011 18,228 USA. Stratified, national, probability sample of households (NIS-teen survey) 2008-10 HPV 9–26 Available at routine healthcare provider 53 % Age, insurance, health care utilization, household income, maternal education level, maternal age, maternal marital status, race, geography/ location
Fournier, M; et al. 2013 1404 USA. Electronic medical records from 2 primary care clinics 2007-12 HPV 11–12 (catch up to 26) Available at routine healthcare provider 40 % Insurance, race, health care utilization (other vaccines)
Ganry, O; et al. 2013   France. Electronic records of the Regime General Insurance (for workers), the RSI (for self-employed) and the RSA (agricultural occupations) 2009-10 HPV 14 (with a catch up to 23) Available at routine healthcare provider 39 % Age, insurance, provider characteristics.
(recently revised to 11–14)
Gold, R; et al. 2013 786 USA. Electronic medical records from an integrated managed care organisation 2008 HPV 11–12 (catch up to 26) Available at routine healthcare provider   Socioeconomic status; health care utilization; provider characteristics; vaccine delivery concomitant with first dose; experiences at the first visit, challenges to making or keeping the index appointment; Knowledge and attitudes about HPV; adverse events.
Gold, R; et al. 2011 450 USA. Administrative data from 19 school-based health centres 2007-8 HPV 11–12 (catch up to 26) Available at routine healthcare provider 51 % Age, race and insurance status
Gonzalez, I; et al. 2002 79,357 USA. Electronic Data from 3 Health Management Organisations 1998 HBV 11–12 Available at routine healthcare provider 73 %, 67 %, 45 % Provider characteristics (Health care organisation)
Harper, D; et al. 2013 2422 USA. Electronic records from a safety net health care system Kansas 2006-09 HPV 11–12 (catch up to 26) Available at routine healthcare provider 42 % Age, race, concomitant (visit type for first dose)
Hirth, J; et al. 2012 271,976 USA. Electronic records of a private insurance company 2006-10 HPV 11–12 (catch up to 26) Available at routine healthcare provider 38 % Age, provider type, time
Kester, L; et al. 2011 500 USA. Knowledge networks coordinated survey (nationally representative) 2010 HPV 11–12 (catch up to 26) Available at routine healthcare provider 81 % Race, insurance, maternal education, maternal relationship status, maternal history of HPV related condition, geography.
Kouyoumdjian, F; Bailowitz, A. 2011 18 USA. Baltimore city health department self report interviews 2007-9 HPV 11–12 (catch up to 26) Available at routine healthcare provider 9.80 % Geography (access), adverse events, qualitative reasons (convenience, knowledge, pain/discomfort)
Ladner, J; et al. 2012 87580 Multi-country (7 low resource countries). Administrative data from Gardasil Access Programme grantee countries 2009-11 HPV Bhutan, Bolivia, Haiti, Nepal: 9–13 School based, health centre based or mixed strategies Bhutan: 88 %, Bolivia: 96 %; Cambodia: 95 %; Cameroon 83 %, Haiti 76 %, Lesotho 93 %; Nepal 99 %. Delivery strategy (school-based, health facility model, mixed model)
Cambodia: 11–18
Cameroon: 9–18
Lesotho: 10–18
Lancman, H; et al. 2000 3 centres USA. Administrative data from 2 school based health centres and one adolescent health clinic 1997-98 HBV 11 and above Available at school based health centres and routine providers 24 %, 29 %, 76 % Health centre characteristics
Laz, T; et al. 2012 11,277 USA. Household questionnaire sent to parents 2010 HPV 11–12 (catch up to 26) Available at routine healthcare provider 49 % Age, parental education, insurance, race, parental income.
Lions, C; et al. 2013 105,327 France. National Insurance Reimbursement database 2007-8 HPV 11–14 (catch up to 19) Available at routine healthcare provider 64.10 % Age, insurance, geography, medical utilization
Macdonald, V; et al. 2007 2471 Australia. Health centre records from a primary health care centre, Sydney (high risk population) 1992-2003 HBV High risk adolescent of any age Available at routine healthcare provider and specialist clinics 21 % Age, gender, race (aboriginal), risk behaviour (IDU, sex worker, hep.C status) length of contact with the health centre, accelerated versus normal schedule.
Moore, G; et al. 2010 209 USA. Medical records of community health clinic attendees Unknown HPV 11–12 (catch up to 26) Available at routine healthcare provider 28 % Attitudes and believes including perceptions of risk, peer experience of HPV vaccine, experience of cancer
Nelson, J C; et al; 2009 590445 USA. Vaccine Safety Datalink population (MCO registry) 1996-2004 Varicella, HAV, HBV 9–17 Available at routine healthcare provider Varicella: 35.9 %; HAV: 48.4 % (age 9–12), 40.3 % (age 13–17); HBV: 63.4 % (age 9–12), 45.1 % (age 13–17). Age, provider site, gender, length of MCO enrollment, year of first dose, utilization of medical visits in year prior to dose 1
Sinka, K; et al. 2014 86769 UK. The Child Health System database and the Scottish Immunisation Recall System 2008-11 HPV 12–13 (catch up for 13–17) School-based (catch up included supply of vaccine at primary health care) Year 1: 89.4 % Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD)
Year 2: 86.9 %
Year 3: 81 %
Markovitz, A; et al. 2014 13,709 USA. Immunization registry, Michigan residents continuously enrolled with a PPO 2006-11 HPV 11–12 (catch up to 26) Available at routine healthcare provider 22 % Maternal preventive care utilization (Pap testing, mammograms, primary care office visits), age, race, household education, household income, maternal age.
Middleman, A. 2004 11,500 USA. School data 1998-2000 HBV School grades 5–6 School-based 72 % Insurance, race and gender
Middleman, A B; et al. 1996 826 USA. Medical records from an adolescent health clinic Unknown HBV Any adolescent attending the clinic Available at routine healthcare provider 23 % Socio-demographics, risk behaviors (for hepatitis B), medication use, chronic illnesses, and experience, knowledge and attitudes about hepatitis B and the immunization
Middleman, A B; et al. 1999 943 USA. Questionnaires distributed at hospital and school based clinics 1994-5 HBV Any adolescent attending the clinics Available at routine healthcare provider and school based clinic 47.6 % (Clinic); 41.7 % (School-based clinic) Race, insurance, residential zip code, risk factors for acquiring hepatitis B, risk behaviors (cigarette and substance use), and academic achievement, chronic illness, healthcare utilization, knowledge about hepatitis B and the vaccination, family history of hepatitis B vaccination, travel time, and mode of transportation to the clinic.
Monnat, S; Wallington, S. 2013 4,776 USA. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey data in 10 territories 2008-10 HPV 11–12 (catch up to 26) Available at routine healthcare provider 14 % Mother’s history of cervical screening (Pap test).
MooreCaldwell, S; et al. 1997 174 USA. Medical records from a university adolescent clinic and junior-senior private high school clinic 1992-3 HBV Any adolescent attending the clinics Available at routine healthcare provider at school based clinics 89 % Adolescent and parent knowledge of hepatitis B, perceived risk.
Moss, J L; et al. 2013 105,121 USA. North Carolina Immunization Registry Not available HPV 11–12 (catch up to 26) Available at routine healthcare provider 28 % Gender ratio, race, provider specialty and adolescent patient load, reminder/recall system, time to documentation in NCIR, computers per clinic, age of vaccine recommendation (Tdap, Meningococcal, HPV)
Musto, R; et al. 2013 35,592 Canada. Calgary zone Public Health vaccination database 2008-11 HPV Grades 5 and 9 School-based programme and available at community public health clinics 75 % (School-based); In-school vs community health clinic delivery model, socioeconomic status, school provider type, history of HBV.
36 % (community)
Neubrand, T; et al. 2009 352 USA. Medical records review from two different sites 2007-8 HPV 11–12 (catch up to 26) Available at routine healthcare provider 58 % Age, race, insurance (private vs Medicaid/Child Health Insurance Program [CHIP]), and distance from home to the clinic, sexual activity prior to initiation of the series, history of an STI, cervical screening history within 3 years of vaccine initiation, reason for clinic visit
Niccolai, L; et al. 2011 7606 USA. NIS-Teen survey: Random digit dialing household survey. 2008-9 HPV 11–12 (catch up to 26) Available at routine healthcare provider 55 % Race, socioeconomic status, age, maternal characteristics, insurance, healthcare utilization, geography (region) and year.
Perkins, R B; et al. 2012 7702 USA. Electronic medical records from Boston Medical/ community health centers 2007-8 HPV 11–12 (catch up to 26) Available at routine healthcare provider 20 % Age, location, number of clinic visits in study period, race, risk behaviour (documentation of STI or alcohol use), history of meningococcal or tdap booster vaccine.
Pruitt, C N; et al. 2013 978 USA. Rochester Epidemiology Project records (REP) from medical records 2006-9 HPV 11–12 (catch up to 26) Available at routine healthcare provider Somali girls: 52 %; white/non-Hispanic: 72 % Somali ethnicity
Rahman, et al. 2013 2632 USA. Data from Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Telephone survey 2008-10 HPV 11–12 (catch up to 26) Available at routine healthcare provider 17 % Geography/ location
Reiter, P L; et al. 2009 229 USA. Telephone survey, North Carolina. 2007-8 HPV 11–12 (catch up to 26) Available at routine healthcare provider 83 % Adverse events/ reported pain from HPV vaccination
Reiter, P; et al. 2013 1951 USA. NIS-Teen survey: Random digit telephone survey 2008-10 HPV 11–12 (catch up to 26) Available at routine healthcare provider 28 % Age, race, healthcare utilization in last year, insurance, maternal characteristics, knowledge of HPV, provider recommendation, socioeconomic status.
Rouzier, R; Giordanella, J. 2010 77,744 France. CPAM social security database 2007-8 HPV 14 (Catch up to 23) Available at routine healthcare provider 43 % Age, provider (general practitioner vs. gynecologist)
Rubin, R; et al. 2012 10,821 USA, Administrative reimbursement data and medical records from medical group practices 2006-10 HPV 11–12 (catch up to 26) Available at routine healthcare provider 27 % Pre-existing STD, age, provider medical department
Sakou, I I; et al. 2011 1005 Greece. Convenience sample of Adolescent Health Unit attendees 2009 HBV, HAV, HPV HPV: 12–15; HAV, HBV: catch up 11–18 Available at routine healthcare provider Not reported Gender, race/ nationality, parental education, family status
Schluterman, N H; et al. 2011 8069 USA. Database of the University of Maryland Medical Center (UMMC) 2006-10 HPV 11–12 (catch up to 26) Available at routine healthcare provider 11 % Race, insurance status (publicly funded, private, or none), age (9–13, 14–17, or 18–26 years), and place of residence (urban or suburban Baltimore).
Schmidt, M A; et al. 2013 311213 USA. Administrative data from vaccination sites 2006-11 HPV 11–12 (catch up to 26) Available at routine healthcare provider 42 % Age, calendar year
Schmitt, K; Thompson, D. 2013 n/a USA. Statewide Immunization Registry 2001-11 HPV 11–12 (catch up to 26) Available at routine healthcare provider 52 % Age, insurance, provider type, race
Seid, M; et al. 2001 800 USA. Survey to parents of children at 5 Schools, San Diego 1998 HBV 11–12 Available at routine healthcare provider 27 % Provider, school based clinics, school socioeconomic status, home language, race, insurance, health care utilization, heard about mandatory vaccination from health care provider.
Smith, L M; et al. 2011 2519 Canada. Universal health insurance program database. 2007-10 HPV School grade 8 School-based 86 % Age, parental income, and place of residence, vaccination history, health services utilisation, medical history.
Tan, W; et al. 2011 138823 USA. NCIR immunisation registry 2006-2009 HPV 11–12 (catch up to 26) Available at routine healthcare provider 55 % Race, age, county of residence, provider clinic type, insurance.
Teplow-Phipps, R; et al. 2014 1,494767 USA. Citywide Immunization Registry (CIR), New York City 2005-12 HPV 11–12 (catch up to 26) Available at routine healthcare provider 38.4 % (females) Age, gender, insurance, clinic specific variables: provider practice-type, number of Tdap vaccines reported (proxy for practice size), and socioeconomic status of practice location.
35.7 % (males)
Tracy, J K; et al. 2010 9658 USA. Clinical data repository at the University of Maryland Medical Center 2006-10 HPV 11–12 (catch up to 26) Available at routine healthcare provider 31 % Age, race.
Tung, C S; Middleman, A B. 2005 8918 USA, Data from 75 schools participating in HBII (Hep B immunization initiative). 1999-2000 HBV 13–15 School-based 59 % Publicity/promotion, packet distribution, return of forms, ratio of students to clinic, provider characteristics
Verdenius, I; et al. 2013 1563 USA. Electronic medical records 2006-9 HPV 11–12 (catch up to 26) Available at routine healthcare provider 32 % Age, type of health visit, healthcare utilization, concomitant healthcare delivery.
Widdice, L E; et al. 2011 3297 USA. Review of medical records from academic medical center 2006-8 HPV 11–12 (catch up to 26) Available at routine healthcare provider 28 % Age, race, insurance, healthcare utilization (DMPA), clinic location, time period of vaccine series initiation
LaMontagne, D; et al. 2011 7269 Peru, India, Uganda, Vietnam. Population based household survey 2008-10 HPV Peru: grade 5; Uganda: grade 5 or age 10; Vietnam: grade 6 or age 11; India: 10–14. School-based or health centre based in all 4 countries Not reported Delivery Strategy