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Table 2 Study characteristics in 1997–99 and 2008–11 among women

From: Changes in mean serum lipids among adults in Germany: results from National Health Surveys 1997-99 and 2008-11

  GNHIES98a N = 3288 DEGS1b N = 3458 P b
Age (mean, years) 46.2 (45.4–46.9) 47.5 (46.8–48.2) .870
Fasting duration (%) <4 h 27.6 (25.6–29.8) 8.5 (7.4–9.8) <.001
  4–8 h 42.1 (40.0–44.2) 46.3 (44.3–48.4)
  >8 h 30.3 (28.3–32.3) 45.2 (43.1–47.2)
Educational status (%) Low 50.5 (47.4–53.6) 36.2 (33.7–38.7) <.001
  Middle 40.6 (38.2–43.0) 51.3 (48.9–53.6)
  High 8.9 (7.6–10.5) 12.6 (10.8–14.6)
Lifestyle
 Current smoking (%) No 70.9 (69.0–72.7) 72.8 (70.7–74.7) .790
  Occasionally 6.0 (5.1–7.0) 5.8 (4.8–6.9)
  Daily 23.2 (21.3–25.1) 21.5 (19.8–23.3)
 Daily coffee consumption (%) 71.3 (69.1–73.5) 78.2 (76.4–79.9) <.001
 Daily processed foods consumption (%) 52.4 (50.0–54.8) 62.3 (60.1–64.5) <.001
 Wholegrain bread consumption (%) Never 7.3 (6.2–8.6) 8.9 (7.7–10.3) <.001
  Less than daily 45.9 (43.4–48.5) 51.9 (49.4–54.4)
  Daily 46.8 (44.3–49.2) 39.2 (36.7–41.8)
 High alcohol consumption (%) 11.7 (10.2–13.5) 13.3 (12.0–14.7) .300
 Sports activity (%) No 50.7 (48.1–53.3) 32.9 (30.8–35.1) <.001
  Up to 2 h per week 34.0 (31.8–36.2) 45.2 (43.0–47.4)
  Regularly, at least 2 h per week 15.4 (13.9–17.0) 21.9 (20.2–23.7)
 BMI category (%) Normal weight 46.5 (44.2–48.9) 47.5 (45.3–49.7) .160
  Overweight 30.6 (28.9–32.5) 29.2 (27.3–31.1)
  Obese 23.2 (21.3–25.1) 23.4 (21.4–25.4)
Use of Medication
 Lipid-lowering medication (%) 5.4 (4.5–6.4) 8.6 (7.5–9.8) <.001
 Statins (%) 2.9 (2.2–3.7) 7.7 (6.7–8.7) <.001
 Hormonal contraceptives (%) 16.8 (15.3–18.4) 21.2 (19.5–23.0) <.001
 Postmenopausal hormone therapy (%) 11.7 (10.4–13.2) 5.0 (4.2–6.0) <.001
Serum Lipids
 Total cholesterol (mean, mmol/l) 6.03 (5.98–6.08) 5.30 (5.24–5.37) <.001
 Triglycerides (geometric mean, mmol/l) 1.20 (1.17–1.23) 1.10 (1.07–1.27) <.001
 High density lipoprotein (mean, mmol/l) 1.66 (1.64–1.69) 1.58 (1.56–1.60) <.001
  1. Differences between categorical variables were estimated with the Rao-Scott Chi-Square test and differences between mean serum lipid levels were estimated with the t-test. P values < 0.05 were considered statistical significant (bold). Mean estimates are weighted: aStandardized to population structure as of 31st December 1997; bStandardized to population structure as of 31st December 2010
  2. Number of missing values (GNHIES98/DEGS1): Fasting duration (151/9), educational status (107/24), current smoking (95/22), daily coffee consumption (106/55), daily processed food consumption (99/47), wholegrain bread consumption (114/63), high alcohol consumption (102/48), sports activity (114/92), BMI category (37/30), lipid-lowering medication/statins (13/13), hormonal contraceptives (13/13), postmenopausal hormone therapy (13/13), total cholesterol (196/40), triglycerides (196/36), high density lipoprotein (196/37)