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Table 1 Study characteristics in 1997–99 and 2008–11 among men

From: Changes in mean serum lipids among adults in Germany: results from National Health Surveys 1997-99 and 2008-11

  GNHIES98a N = 3144 DEGS1b N = 3146 P b
Age (mean, years) 44.3 (43.5–45.1) 46.5 (45.8–47.2) .600
Fasting duration (%) <4 h 28.5 (26.3–30.9) 10.6 (9.3–12.0) <.001
  4 – 8 h 48.9 (46.8–51.0) 38.3 (36.3–40.5)
  >8 h 22.6 (20.6–24.6) 51.1 (49.0–53.1)
Educational status (%) Low 48.2 (45.1–51.3) 35.0 (32.2–37.9) <.001
  Middle 36.7 (34.3–39.2) 47.8 (45.3–50.3)
  High 15.1 (13.4–17.0) 17.2 (15.4–19.2)
Lifestyle
 Current smoking (%) No 61.8 (59.5–64.1) 67.7 (65.3–70.1) .009
  Occasionally 6.0 (5.1–7.0) 6.4 (5.4–7.7)
  Daily 32.2 (29.9–34.6) 25.8 (23.6–28.2)
 Daily coffee consumption (%) 70.5 (68.3–72.6) 77.3 (75.3–79.2) <.001
 Daily processed foods consumption (%) 65.4 (63.3–67.4) 68.6 (66.3–70.8) <.001
 Wholegrain bread consumption (%) Never 13.8 (12.0–15.7) 16.7 (15.0–18.5) <.001
  Less than daily 51.8 (49.8–53.9) 58.1 (55.9–60.3)
  Daily 34.4 (32.0–36.7) 25.2 (23.1–27.3)
 High alcohol consumption (%) 26.1 (24.0–28.4) 18.6 (16.9–20.3) <.001
 Sports activity (%) No 44.9 (42.6–47.3) 32.2 (30.1–34.5) <.001
  Up to 2 h per week 31.8 (30.1–33.6) 38.4 (36.1–40.8)
  Regularly, at least 2 h per week 23.3 (21.4–25.2) 29.3 (27.4–31.4)
 BMI category (%) Normal weight 32.1 (29.8–34.5) 32.7 (30.6–35.0) <.001
  Overweight 48.6 (46.6–50.6) 43.7 (41.6–45.9)
  Obese 19.3 (17.7–21.0) 23.5 (21.3–25.9)
Use of Medication
 Lipid-lowering medication (%) 5.8 (4.9–7.0) 10.9 (9.7–12.3) <.001
 Statins (%) 3.5 (2.8–4.3) 9.8 (8.5–11.1) <.001
Serum Lipids
 Total cholesterol (mean, mmol/l) 5.97 (5.91–6.03) 5.19 (5.13–5.24) <.001
 Triglycerides (geometric mean, mmol/l) 1.66 (1.61–1.71) 1.42 (1.38–1.45) <.001
 High density lipoprotein (mean, mmol/l) 1.29 (1.27–1.31) 1.27 (1.25–1.29) .170
  1. Differences between categorical variables were estimated with the Rao-Scott Chi-Square test and differences between mean serum lipid levels were estimated with the t-test. P values < 0.05 were considered statistical significant (bold). Mean estimates are weighted: aStandardized to population structure as of 31st December 1997; bStandardized to population structure as of 31st December 2010
  2. Number of missing values (GNHIES98/DEGS1): Fasting duration (120/23), educational status (87/24), current smoking (66/20), daily coffee consumption (81/69), daily processed food consumption (78/59), wholegrain bread consumption (101/78), high alcohol consumption (79/61), sports activity (81/106), BMI category (15/20), lipid-lowering medication/statins (12/11), total cholesterol (172/38), triglycerides (172/34), high density lipoprotein (174/34)