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Table 5 Comparison of manganese concentrations in urine from the present study and previous studies

From: Maternal urinary manganese and risk of low birth weight: a case–control study

       Percentiles  
Location Author (year) Population Number Arithmetic Mean 25th 50th 75th
Hubei, China Present study (2014) Pregnant women 816 0.66 μg/L 1.12 μg/g creatinine 0.13 μg/L 0.18 μg/g creatinine 0.38 μg/L 0.69 μg/g creatinine 0.85 μg/L 1.87 μg/g creatinine
Western Australia Callan (2013) [33] Pregnant women 173 1.00 μg/L 1.22 μg/g creatinine —— 0.33 μg/L 0.53 μg/g creatinine ——
California, USA Gunier (2014) [34] Pregnant women 59 —— 0.20 μg/L 0.40 μg/L 0.60 μg/L
Bangladeshi Ljung (2009) [22] Pregnant women 388 2.50 μg/L 0.90 μg/L 1.60 μg/L 2.80 μg/L
Canada Health Canada (2010) [39] Women 5309 0.15 μg/L < LOD 0.09 μg/L 0.17 μg/L
Japan Ohashi (2006) [40] Women 1000 —— —— 0.16 μg/L 0.13 μg/g creatinine ——
France Goullé (2005) [41] General population 100 —— —— 0.31 μg/L ——
Germany Heitland (2006) [42] General population 87 0. 09 μg/L —— —— ——
  1. —— No data