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Table 3 Association between Serum 25(OH)D and Prevalence of Diabetes and Prediabetes in Kuwaiti Adults, NNSSK 2008-2009a

From: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with high prevalence of diabetes in Kuwaiti adults: results from a national survey

  Nondiabetic Prediabetic OR (95 % CI) Diabetic OR (95 % CI)b
N (%) N (%) Model Ib Model IIc N (%) Model Ib Model IIc
Vitamin D Status
Sufficiency (25(OH)D ≥ 20 ng/ml) 66 (40.2) 50 (30.5) 1.0 1.0 48 (29.3) 1.0 1.0
Inadequacy (25(OH)D =12–19.9 ng/ml) 167 (37.4) 149 (33.3) 1.9 (1.2–3.0) 1.7 (1.0–2.9) 131 (29.3) 2.4 (2.4–4.2) 2.1 (1.2–3.7)
Deficiency (25 (OH)D <12 ng/ml) 155 (44.9) 125 (36.2) 2.1 (1.3–3.5) 2.0 (1.1–3.3) 65 (18.8) 2.1 (1.2–3.8) 2.0 (1.1–3.9)
    P trend = 0.008 P trend = 0.03   P trend = 0.046 P trend = 0.06
  1. aAccording to the American Diabetes Association’s criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes [2], a subject was defined as having diabetes if fasting glucose ≥7.0 mmol/L or HbA1c ≥ 6.5 %, and having prediabetes if fasting glucose = 5.6–6.9 mmol/L or HbA1c = 5.7–6.4 %
  2. bModel I: Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were adjusted for age
  3. cModel II: Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were additionally adjusted for sex, education (less than high school, high school, and college or higher), body mass index (continuous), smoking status (current, former, and nonsmokers), physical activity (active vs. sedentary), dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium (high vs. low according to median), supplemental intake of vitamin D and calcium (yes vs. no), and season of blood draw (summer/spring vs. winter/fall)