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Table 2 Characteristics of Kuwaiti Adults by Diabetes Status, NNSSK 2008-2009

From: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with high prevalence of diabetes in Kuwaiti adults: results from a national survey

  Nondiabetic
(N = 388)
Prediabetica
(N = 324)
Diabetica
(N = 244)
P value
Age (yr),mean (SD) 34.6 (11.5) 45.5 (13.0) 54.7 (11.4) <0.0001
Sex, N (%)     
 Male 165 (42.5) 148 (46.0) 122 (50.0)  
 Female 223 (57.5) 175 (54.0) 122 (50.0) 0.18
Education, N (%)
 Less than high school 78 (20.1) 91 (28.1) 122 (50.0)  
 High school 76 (19.6) 55 (17.0) 36 (14.7)  
 College or higher 234 (60.3) 178 (54.9) 86 (35.3) <0.0001
BMI (kg/m2), mean (SD) 27.9 (6.3) 31.1 (6.5) 31.5 (5.7) <0.0001
N (%)
 <25 130 (33.7) 48 (14.9) 27 (11.1)  
 25–29 145 (37.6) 102 (31.6) 73 (30.0)  
 ≥30 111 (28.8) 173 (53.5) 143 (58.9) <0.0001
Physical activityb, N (%)
 Sedentary 296 (76.9) 282 (87.3) 222 (91.0)  
 Active 89 (23.1) 41 (12.7) 22 (9.0) <0.0001
Smoking status, N (%)
 Nonsmokers 264 (68.0) 218 (67.3) 164 (67.2)  
 Former smokers 35 (9.0) 44 (13.6) 43 (17.6)  
 Current smokers 89 (22.9) 62 (19.1) 37 (15.2) 0.01
Season of blood drawc, N (%)
 Winter/Spring 201 (51.8) 192 (59.3) 135 (55.6)  
 Summer/fall 187 (48.2) 132 (40.7) 108 (44.4) 0.14
Dietary intake of vitamin D, IU/day per 1,000 kcal
 Median (IQR) 17.2 (43.7) 16.4 (41.8) 26.2 (57.1) 0.04
N (%)
 Low (<20.9) 195 (51.5) 171 (53.9) 102 (42.7)  
 High (≥20.9) 184 (48.5) 146 (46.1) 137 (57.3) 0.02
Supplemental use of vitamin D, N (%)
 No 375 (96.7) 305 (94.1) 233 (95.5)  
 Yes 13 (3.4) 19 (5.9) 11 (4.5) 0.27
Dietary intake of calcium, mg/day per 1,000 kcal
 Median (IQR) 303.1 (216.3) 328.5 (230.3) 357.7 (259.8) 0.003
N (%)
 Low (<348.2) 217 (55.9) 154 (47.5) 108 (44.4)  
 High (≥348.2) 171 (44.1) 170 (52.5) 135 (55.6) 0.01
Supplemental use of calcium, N (%)
 No 356 (91.8) 294 (90.7) 218 (89.3)  
 Yes 32 (8.3) 30 (9.3) 26 (10.7) 0.59
  1. aAccording to the American Diabetes Association’s criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes [2], a subject was defined as having diabetes if fasting glucose ≥7.0 mmol/L or HbA1c ≥ 6.5 %, or if he/she reported a physician diagnosis of diabetes or use of medications to control diabetes. A subject was defined as having prediabetes if fasting glucose = 5.6–6.9 mmol/L or HbA1c = 5.7–6.4 %
  2. bA subject was defined as being physically active if having moderate physical activity ≥150 min/week or strenuous physical activity ≥75 min/week, and physically inactive otherwise, according to the 2008 CDC physical activity guidelines [1]
  3. cSpring and summer seasons were Feb.16–Nov.4, and fall and winter seasons were Nov.5-Feb.15