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Table 1 Characteristics of Kuwaiti Adults by Vitamin D Status, NNSSK 2008–2009

From: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with high prevalence of diabetes in Kuwaiti adults: results from a national survey

  Vitamin D status (Serum 25(OH)D)  
  Sufficient
(≥20 ng/ml)
(N = 165)
Inadequate
(12–19.9 ng/ml)
(N = 447)
Deficient
(<12 ng/ml)
(N = 348)
P value
Age (year), mean (SD) 49.6 (15.2) 44.2 (14.5) 39.3 (12.7) <0.0001
Sex, N (%)
 Male 84 (50.9) 238 (53.2) 114 (32.8) <0.0001
 Female 81 (49.1) 209 (46.8) 234 (67.2)  
Education, N (%)
 Less than high school 70 (42.4) 146 (32.7) 76 (21.8) <0.0001
 High school 17 (10.3) 79 (17.7) 72 (20.7)  
 College or higher 78 (42.3) 222 (49.7) 200 (57.5)  
BMI (kg/m 2 ), mean (SD) 28.3 (5.1) 30.1 (6.5) 30.4 (6.8) 0.001
N (%)
 <25 44 (26.7) 91 (20.5) 70 (20.2) 0.01
 25–29 67 (40.6) 149 (33.6) 105 (30.3)  
 ≥30 54 (32.7) 204 (46.0) 172 (49.6)  
Physical activitya, N (%)
 Sedentary 140 (84.9) 367 (82.5) 297 (85.8) 0.42
 Active 25 (15.2) 78 (17.5) 49 (14.2)  
Smoking status, N (%)
 Nonsmokers 102 (61.8) 286 (64.0) 262 (75.3) 0.005
 Former smokers 24 (14.6) 63 (14.1) 35 (10.1)  
 Current smokers 39 (23.6) 98 (21.9) 51 (14.7)  
Season of blood drawb, N (%)
 Winter/Spring 9 (5.5) 64 (14.6) 66 (19.5) 0.0002
 Summer/fall 155 (94.5) 374 (85.4) 273 (80.5)  
Dietary intake of vitamin D (IU/day per 1,000 kcal)
 Median (IQR) 26.7 (57.3) 19.9 (47.1) 14.8 (41.0) 0.02
N (%)
 Low (<20.9) 195 (51.5) 171 (53.9) 137 (57.3) 0.02
 High (≥20.9) 184 (48.5) 146 (46.1) 102 (42.7)  
Supplemental use of vitamin D, N (%)
 No 148 (89.7) 428 (95.8) 341 (98.0) 0.0001
 Yes 17 (10.3) 19 (4.3) 7 (2.0)  
Dietary intake of calcium (mg/day per 1,000 kcal)
 Median (IQR) 368.8 (265.4) 319.2 (236.8) 296.8 (208.3) 0.0004
N(%)     
 Low (<348.2) 217 (55.9) 154 (47.5) 108 (44.4) 0.01
 High (≥348.2) 171 (44.1) 170 (52.5) 135 (55.6)  
Supplemental use of calcium, N (%)
 No 136 (82.4) 406 (90.8) 329 (94.5) <0.0001
 Yes 29 (17.6) 41 (9.2) 19 (5.5)  
  1. aA subject was defined as being physically active if having moderate physical activity ≥150 min/week or strenuous physical activity ≥75 min/week, and physically inactive otherwise, according to the 2008 CDC physical activity guidelines [1]
  2. bSpring and summer seasons were Feb.16-Nov.4, and fall and winter seasons were Nov.5–Feb.15