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Table 4 Adjusted estimates for percent predicted FEV1 and FVC associated with education level stratified by gender

From: Socioeconomic status is associated with reduced lung function in China: an analysis from a large cross-sectional study in Shanghai

   FEV1 % Predicteda FVC % Predicteda
   Estimate (95 % CI) P-value Estimate (95 % CI) P-value
Female Low −2.61 (−3.70, −1.52) <0.01 −3.63 (−4.67, −2.59) <0.01
(n = 12,195) Intermediate −0.70 (−1.63, 0.23) 0.14 −1.16 (−2.05, −0.27) 0.01
  High Reference   Reference  
  Trend test p-value   <0.01   <0.01
Male Low −3.66 (−4.63, −2.69) <0.01 −5.49 (−6.41, −4.57) <0.01
(n = 10,683) Intermediate −1.06 (−1.87, −0.24) 0.01 −1.93 (−2.70, −1.15) <0.01
  High Reference   Reference  
  Trend test p-value   <0.01   <0.01
  1. aAdjusted for SHS exposure (yes or no), smoking history (current, former, and never), pack years of smoking, biomass exposure (yes or no), low fruit/vegetable diet (<1/day serving of either fruits or vegetables), mode of transport to work, and occupational category