Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 5 Association of household income with eating behaviors in Japanese men: Unadjusted odds ratio (OR) and adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI)

From: Association of household income and education with eating behaviors in Japanese adults: a cross-sectional study

Dependent variables|| Independent variables
Household income
  Unadjusted§ Trend p-value Adjusted§ Trend p-value
Group OR 95 % CI p-value OR 95 % CI p-value
Taking care of one’s diet for healtha <3,000,000 JPY 1.00 (ref)   <0.001*** 1.00 (ref)   0.003**
3,000,000 JPY–7,000,000 JPY 1.29 1.01–1.64 0.042*   1.18 0.90–1.55 0.234  
>7,000,000 JPY 1.91 1.44–2.54 <0.001***   1.63 1.18–2.25 0.003**  
Eating vegetablesb <3,000,000 JPY 1.00 (ref)   <0.001*** 1.00 (ref)   0.006**
3,000,000 JPY–7,000,000 JPY 1.67 1.31–2.14 <0.001***   1.36 1.03–1.79 0.029*  
>7,000,000 JPY 2.16 1.66–2.83 <0.001***   1.55 1.14–2.11 0.005**  
Frequency of eating breakfastc <3,000,000 JPY 1.00 (ref)   0.098 1.00 (ref)   0.267
3,000,000 JPY–7,000,000 JPY 1.26 0.99–1.60 0.060   0.96 0.74–1.26 0.783  
>7,000,000 JPY 1.24 0.95–1.61 0.112   0.84 0.62–1.15 0.273  
Frequency of family breakfastsc <3,000,000 JPY 1.00 (ref)   0.029* 1.00 (ref)   0.049*
3,000,000 JPY–7,000,000 JPY 1.24 0.93–1.65 0.149   0.69 0.49–0.96 0.030*  
>7,000,000 JPY 1.41 1.03–1.93 0.030*   0.67 0.47–0.98 0.037*  
Frequency of family dinnersc <3,000,000 JPY 1.00 (ref)   0.053 1.00 (ref)   <0.001***
3,000,000 JPY–7,000,000 JPY 1.11 0.87–1.41 0.417   0.67 0.50–0.91 0.010*  
>7,000,000 JPY 0.75 0.56–0.99 0.039*   0.38 0.27–0.54 <0.001***  
Using the information on nutrition labelsb <3,000,000 JPY 1.00 (ref)   <0.001*** 1.00 (ref)   <0.001***
3,000,000 JPY–7,000,000 JPY 1.29 1.00–1.65 0.047*   1.20 0.91–1.58 0.195  
>7,000,000 JPY 2.14 1.64–2.80 <0.001***   1.89 1.39–2.57 <0.001***  
Conversations with family or friends during mealsb <3,000,000 JPY 1.00 (ref)   <0.001*** 1.00 (ref)   0.018*
3,000,000 JPY–7,000,000 JPY 1.34 1.03–1.73 0.029*   0.89 0.67–1.20 0.454  
>7,000,000 JPY 2.43 1.85–3.20 <0.001***   1.38 1.01–1.91 0.044*  
  1. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001
  2. Trend test
  3. The independent variable of household income was adjusted for age classification, marital status, residence status, employment status and education
  4. §OR = odds ratio; CI = confidence interval; ref = referent group
  5. ||As the dependent variable of dietary behaviors, seven items were confirmed the distribution of the answer and categorized in positive answer = 1, negative answer = 0
  6. aResponses were given in six categories: (1) very often; (2) often; (3) sometimes; (4) rarely; (5) almost never; and (6) never. People who answered (1) to (3) to the question were defined as positive answer, (4) to (6) to the question were defined as negative answer
  7. bResponses were in the following four categories: (1) very often; (2) often; (3) not much; and (4) never. People who answered (1) or (2) to the question were defined as positive answer, (3) or (4) to the question were defined as negative answer
  8. cResponses were rated in the following five categories: (1) every day; (2) 4 or 5 days/week; (3) 2 or 3 days/week; (4) 1 day/week; and (5) never. People who answered (1) to the question were defined as positive answer, (2) or (5) to the question were defined as negative answer