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Table 4 Predictors of exceeding ED guidelines in typical and maximum ED sessions and AmED sessions

From: Awareness of energy drink intake guidelines and associated consumption practices: a cross-sectional study

  Exceed guidelines: typical ED session (n = 962) Exceed guidelines: maximum ED session (n = 981) Exceed guidelines: typical AmED session (n = 704) Exceed guidelines: maximum AmED session (n = 694)
Model b p OR (95 % CI) b p OR (95 % CI) b p OR (95 % CI) b p OR (95 % CI)
Step 1 R 2= .017 R 2= .040 R 2= .002 R 2= .003
Accurate estimator 0.63 .008 1.88 (1.18–3.01) 0.74 <.001 2.10 (1.60–2.76) 0.15 .339 1.16 (0.86–1.57) 0.21 .183 1.23 (0.91–1.67)
Step 2 R 2= .045 R 2= .091 R 2= .029 R 2= .028
Accurate estimator 0.62 .011 1.86 (1.15–3.00) 0.69 <.001 1.99 (1.50–2.63) 0.10 .541 1.10 (0.81–1.50) 0.18 .270 1.19 (0.87–1.63)
Age 0.03 .158 1.03 (0.99–1.07) −0.01 .267 0.99 (0.96–1.01) −0.02 .219 0.98 (0.95–1.01) 0.00 .937 1.00 (0.97–1.03)
Male 0.72 .003 2.05 (1.27–3.34) 0.77 <.001 2.17 (1.64–2.86) 0.52 .001 1.69 (1.24–2.29) 0.40 .011 1.50 (1.10–2.04)
Employed −0.01 .957 1.01 (0.61–1.68) −0.05 .718 0.95 (0.71–1.27) 0.19 .247 1.21 (0.88–1.67) 0.32 .049 1.38 (1.00–1.91)
Completed tertiary −0.27 .334 0.76 (0.44–1.32) −0.17 .295 0.84 (0.61–1.16) −0.02 .912 0.98 (0.68–1.40) −0.19 .292 0.83 (0.58–1.18)
Studying tertiary 0.19 .569 1.21 (0.63–2.32) 0.18 .336 1.20 (0.83–1.75) 0.12 .580 1.12 (0.74–1.73) 0.21 .343 1.23 (0.80–1.87)
Step 3 R 2= .116 R 2= .329 R 2= .073 R 2= .089
Accurate estimator 0.41 .109 1.50 (0.91–2.26) 0.43 .007 1.54 (1.12–2.12) 0.01 .936 1.01 (0.74–1.39) 0.08 .640 1.08 (0.78–1.49)
Age 0.03 .192 1.03 (0.99–1.07) −0.02 .283 0.99 (0.96–1.01) −0.02 .320 0.98 (0.95–1.02) 0.01 .715 1.01 (0.98–1.04)
Male 0.62 .014 1.86 (1.13–3.05) 0.64 <.001 1.89 (1.38–2.59) 0.40 .013 1.49 (1.09–2.05) 0.24 .143 1.27 (0.92–1.76)
Employed −0.05 .852 0.95 (0.57–1.60) −0.21 .204 0.81 (0.58–1.12) 0.11 .517 1.12 (0.80–1.55) 0.24 .155 1.27 (0.91–1.77)
Completed tertiary −0.29 .314 0.75 (0.43–1.31) −0.21 .254 0.81 (0.57–1.16) 0.10 .956 1.01 (0.70–1.45) −0.16 .409 0.86 (0.59–1.24)
Studying tertiary 0.22 .517 1.25 (0.64–2.44) 0.21 .338 1.23 (0.81–1.88) 0.12 .615 1.12 (0.72–1.73) 0.19 .382 1.21 (0.79–1.87)
Frequency of use             
Monthly or less (ref) - - - - - - - - - - - -
Every two weeks-weekly 0.15 .658 1.17 (0.59–2.29) 1.18 <.001 3.25 (2.29–4.62) 0.77 <.001 2.16 (1.49–3.13) 0.89 <.001 2.43 (1.67–3.54)
More than weekly 1.49 <.001 4.44 (2.56–7.73) 2.80 <.001 16.39 (10.58–25.40) 0.82 <.001 2.27 (1.47–3.51) 1.02 <.001 2.76 (1.75–4.35)
Step 4 - - R 2= .153 R 2= .223
Accurate estimator - - - - - - −0.06 .722 0.94 (0.68–1.31) −0.07 .695 0.93 (0.66–1.32)
Age - - - - - - −0.01 .598 0.99 (0.96–1.02) 0.02 .220 1.02 (0.99–1.06)
Male - - - - - - 0.20 .228 1.23 (0.88–1.71) 0.03 .855 1.03 (0.73–1.46)
Employed - - - - - - 0.10 .581 1.10 (0.78–1.55) 0.28 .127 1.32 (0.93–1.89)
Completed tertiary - - - - - - −0.04 .854 0.97 (0.66–1.41) −0.23 .243 0.79 (0.54–1.17)
Studying tertiary - - - - - - 0.05 .829 1.05 (0.67–1.64) 0.16 .492 1.18 (0.74–1.87)
Frequency of use - - - - - - - - - - - -
Monthly or less (ref) - - - - - - - - - - - -
Every two weeks-weekly - - - - - - 0.78 <.001 2.19 (1.50–3.19) 0.92 <.001 2.50 (1.68–3.73)
More than weekly - - - - - - 0.82 <.001 2.26 (1.45–3.52) 1.01 <.001 2.75 (1.70–4.46)
Exceed alcohol guidelines typical AmED sessions - - - - - - 1.12 <.001 3.05 (2.19–4.25) - - -
Exceed alcohol guidelines maximum AmED sessions - - - - - - - - - 1.53 <.001 4.63 (3.26–6.58)
  1. This table presents the results of multivariate hierarchical binary logistic regression analyses. The dependent variable is whether the past year ED consumer reported exceeding ED maximum recommended daily intake guidelines (≥3 standard 250 mL EDs) in typical and maximum ED and AmED drinking sessions in the preceding 12 months. Step 1: awareness of ED guidelines (‘uninformed consumer’ versus ‘accurate estimator’); Step 2: sex, age, employment, completed tertiary qualification, and studying for tertiary qualification; Step 3: frequency of ED use (‘fortnightly-weekly’ and ‘more than weekly’ versus ‘monthly or less); Step 4 (AmED models only): exceeding alcohol intake guidelines (≥5 standard alcoholic drinks) in typical and maximum AmED sessions. Those values bolded indicate statistical significance (p < .050) and those italicised indicated a trend towards statistical significance (p < .100). ED: energy drink; AmED: alcohol mixed with energy drink OR: odds ratio. 95 % CI: 95 % confidence interval