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Table 2 Energy drink consumption (without alcohol) of past year consumers according to awareness of guidelines

From: Awareness of energy drink intake guidelines and associated consumption practices: a cross-sectional study

  A. accurate estimators B. under-estimators C. over-estimators D. unaware consumers B. vs A. (ref) OR C. vs A. (ref) OR D. vs A. (ref) OR
  n = 398 n = 324 n = 50 n = 274 (95 % CI) (95 % CI) (95 % CI)
% ED use every two weeks + 46 (41–51) 39 (33–44) 30 (19–44) 26 (21–32) 0.75 (0.55–1.00), p= .054 0.51 (0.27–0.96), p= .037 0.42 (0.30–0.59), p< .001
% Monthly or more frequent intake in excess of guidelines 19 (15–23) 11 (8–15) 10 (4–21) 7 (5–11) 0.54 (0.35–0.83), p= .005 0.48 (0.18–1.24), p = .130 0.34 (0.20–0.57), p< .001
Typical ED intake (M, SD) 1.6 (1.1) 1.4 (0.7) 1.7 (1.7) 1.4 (1.0) 0.74 (0.62–0.89), p= .002 1.04 (0.83–1.31), p = .724 0.82 (0.69–0.98), p= .027
% Typical intake exceeds ED guidelines 8 (6–10) 11 (8–15) 6 (4–9) 9 (4–20) 0.49 (0.27–0.87), p= .016 0.75 (0.26–2.21), p = .605 0.54 (0.30–0.99), p= .046
Maximum ED intake (M, SD) 2.9 (2.3) 2.3 (1.7) 2.9 (3.7) 2.1 (2.0) 0.87 (0.80–0.95), p= .001 1.01 (0.90–1.12), p = .921 0.81 (0.74–0.90), p< .001
% Maximum intake exceeds ED guidelines 43 (38–48) 27 (22–32) 36 (23–50) 24 (20–30) 0.50 (0.36–0.69), p< .001 0.74 (0.39–1.41), p = .364 0.44 (0.31–0.62), p< .001
  1. Twenty-five participants did not specify whether they had consumed EDs independently (n = 1105). Those values bolded indicate statistical significance (p < .050). Energy drink: energy drink; OR odds ratio, 95 % CI 95 % confidence interval