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Table 3 Effect of repetition & reinforcement: Percent change in adjusted mean scores at different evaluations

From: The role of repetition and reinforcement in school-based oral health education-a cluster randomized controlled trial

   Cumulative score DLa TLb PLc Statistical Significance
(n = 935) (n = 303) (n = 307) (n = 325)
K-Dent (Score: 3) I vs BL 11.66* 10.33* 5.00 19.66** I > BL
I vs II 5.66 4.66 3.33 9.00* I > II
III vs II 41.00** 46.66** 42.66** 34.00** III > II
III vs IV 18.33** 29.00** 11.33* 15.00** III > IV
K-Caries (Score: 4) I vs BL 6.00 6.50 4.00 7.50* I > BL
I vs II 1.75 2.75 1.25 1.50 NS
III vs II 19.75** 21.25** 17.50** 20.50** III > II
III vs IV 6.25 7.25* 3.50 8.25* III > IV
K-Gingivitis (Score: 2) I vs BL 11.50* 13.50* 4.50 15.50** I > BL
I vs II 5.00 6.00 2.00 6.00 NS
III vs II 30.00** 31.50** 28.50** 30.00** III > II
III vs IV 8.00* 11.50* 8.00* 5.50 III > IV
K-Cancer (Score: 3) I vs BL 11.66* 17.33** 5.33 12.33* I > BL
I vs II 7.66* 12.66* 2.66 7.66* I > II
III vs II 26.00** 31.33** 19.00** 28.33** III > II
III vs IV 2.66 2.66 4.00 2.00 NS
OHK-Composite (Score: 12) I vs BL 9.66* 11.42* 4.75 12.83* I > BL
I vs II 4.66 6.25 2.25 5.66 I > II
III vs II 28.42** 31.50** 26.00** 27.75** III > II
III vs V 8.42* 11.33* 5.75 8.08* III > IV
OHB-Gingivitis (Score: 6) I vs BL 10.17* 11.50* 6.50 12.50* I > BL
I vs II 2.83 4.00 1.67 2.83 NS
III vs II 30.00** 29.17** 27.83** 33.00** III > II
III vs IV 0.83 1.83 −0.33 1.33 NS
OHB-Cancer (Score: 6) I vs BL 3.83 4.67 3.33 3.50 NS
I vs II 1.50 1.50 1.33 1.50 NS
III vs II 30.33** 30.83** 26.33** 34.00** III > II
III vs IV 2.67 3.67 1.83 2.50 NS
OHB-Composite (Score: 12) I vs BL 7.25* 8.17* 4.58 7.83* I > BL
I vs II 2.17 2.75 1.50 2.17 NS
III vs II 30.25** 30.00** 27.08** 33.50** III > II
III vs IV 1.83 2.83 0.58 1.67 NS
OHS-Composite (Score: 12) I vs BL 4.33 5.08 3.08 3.33 NS
I vs II 4.08 4.17 2.92 4.17 NS
III vs II 15.08** 12.58** 14.92** 17.67** III > II
IV vs III 3.42 5.00 2.50 2.67 NS
  1. aDL: Dentist-led; bTL: Teacher-led; cPL: Peer-led strategies of oral health education (OHE); Evaluation I: After single OHE session; Evaluation II: Six months after single OHE session; Evaluation III: Six months after RR-OHE; Evaluation IV: Twelve months after RR-OHE;*p < 0.05; **p < 0.001; >:Statistically better than; NS: Statistically insignificant difference; Cumulative scores adjusted for gender, type of school, clustering effect and OHE strategy using GEE; Scores of DL, TL, PL strategies adjusted for gender, type of school and clustering; DL group was used as positive control