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Table 2 Adjusted mean scoresa at baseline (BL) and at evaluation I to IV: Effect of repetition & reinforcement on oral health knowledge, behavior & status

From: The role of repetition and reinforcement in school-based oral health education-a cluster randomized controlled trial

  Oral Health Education Strategy
Domain or Composite Index   Cumulative (n = 935) Dentist-led (n = 303) Teacher-led (n = 307) Peer-led (n = 325)
K-Dent (Score: 3) BL 1.28 (1.16–1.37) 1.25 (1.08–1.43) 1.35 (1.17–1.52) 1.23 (1.05–1.40)
I 1.63 (1.50–1.71) 1.56 (1.37–1.74) 1.50 (1.31–1.68) 1.82 (1.64–2.00)
II 1.46 (1.37–1.55) 1.42 (1.24–1.59) 1.40 (1.22–1.58) 1.55 (1.44–1.65)
III 2.69 (2.57–2.79) 2.82 (2.63–3.00) 2.68 (2.50–2.80) 2.57 (2.41–2.73)
IV 2.14 (2.03–2.25) 1.95 (1.74–2.16) 2.34 (2.13–2.49) 2.12 (1.90–2.33)
K-Caries (Score: 4) BL 0.49 (0.41–0.56) 0.42 (0.32–0.52) 0.57 (0.47–0.67) 0.49 (0.40–0.59)
I 0.73 (0.65–0.80) 0.68 (0.58–0.77) 0.73 (0.64–0.83) 0.79 (0.70–0.89)
II 0.66 (0.60–0.75) 0.57 (0.50–0.64) 0.68 (0.61–0.76) 0.73 (0.65–0.80)
III 1.45 (1.37–1.51) 1.42 (1.25–1.59) 1.38 (1.21–1.55) 1.55 (1.38–1.72)
IV 1.20 (1.14–1.28) 1.13 (1.01–1.24) 1.24 (1.12–1.37) 1.22 (1.10–1.35)
K-Gingivitis (Score: 2) BL 0.39 (0.33–0.45) 0.42 (0.36–0.48) 0.39 (0.33–0.45) 0.37 (0.31–0.43)
I 0.62 (0.55–0.67) 0.69 (0.59–0.80) 0.48 (0.38–0.59) 0.68 (0.57–0.78)
II 0.52 (0.46–0.58) 0.57 (0.48–0.65) 0.44 (0.35–0.53) 0.56 (0.48–0.65)
III 1.12 (1.06–1.18) 1.20 (1.04–1.37) 1.01 (0.95–1.07) 1.16 (0.99–1.32)
IV 0.96 (0.90–1.02) 0.97 (0.91–1.03) 0.85 (0.76–0.94) 1.05 (0.93–1.17)
K-Cancer (Score: 3) BL 0.25 (0.16–0.34) 0.21 (0.15–0.26) 0.29 (0.24–0.35) 0.24 (0.19–0.29)
I 0.60 (0.52–0.67) 0.73 (0.59–0.86) 0.45 (0.32–0.58) 0.61 (0.48–0.75)
II 0.37 (0.29–0.44) 0.35 (0.24–0.46) 0.37 (0.30–0.43) 0.38 (0.31–0.46)
III 1.15 (1.11–1.26) 1.29 (1.09–1.49) 0.94 (0.74–1.13) 1.23 (1.03–1.42)
IV 1.07 (0.98–1.14) 1.21 (1.04–1.39) 0.82 (0.65–0.99) 1.17 (1.00–1.34)
OHK-Composite (Score: 12) BL 2.41 (2.15–2.66) 2.29 (2.05–2.54) 2.59 (2.32–2.86) 2.36 (2.12–2.60)
I 3.57 (3.28–3.86) 3.66 (3.43–3.89) 3.16 (2.84–3.48) 3.90 (3.61–4.19)
II 3.01 (2.73–3.30) 2.91 (2.64–3.18) 2.89 (2.66–3.12) 3.22 (2.98–3.46)
III 6.42 (6.16–6.68) 6.69 (6.37–7.02) 6.01 (5.68–6.35) 6.55 (6.25–6.86)
IV 5.41 (5.14–5.62) 5.33 (4.80–5.87) 5.32 (4.79–5.85) 5.58 (5.05–6.11)
Attitudes (Score: 2) BL 1.92 (1.90–1.93) 1.95 (1.91–1.98) 1.92 (1.89–1.95) 1.88 (1.85–1.91)
I 1.95 (1.94–1.97) 1.96 (1.94–1.99) 1.94 (1.92–1.97) 1.95 (1.92–1.97)
II 1.95 (1.93–1.96) 1.95 (1.92–1.98) 1.96 (1.93–1.98) 1.93 (1.90–1.96)
III 1.97 (1.96–1.99) 1.97 (1.95–1.99) 1.97 (1.95–1.99) 1.98 (1.96–2.00)
IV 1.96 (1.94–1.97) 1.97 (1.95–1.99) 1.95 (1.92–1.97) 1.95 (1.93–1.98)
OHB-Gingivitis (Score: 6) BL 1.64 (1.50–1.79) 1.56 (1.37–1.74) 1.75 (1.57–1.94) 1.62 (1.44–1.80)
I 2.25 (2.13–2.41) 2.25 (2.07–2.42) 2.14 (1.97–2.31) 2.37 (2.20–2.54)
II 2.08 (1.95–2.23) 2.01 (1.92–2.13) 2.04 (1.86–2.22) 2.20 (2.11–2.29)
III 3.88 (3.73–4.02) 3.76 (3.58–3.94) 3.71 (3.45–3.97) 4.18 (4.01–4.36)
IV 3.83 (3.69–3.97) 3.65 (3.48–3.83) 3.73 (3.55–3.92) 4.10 (3.96–4.25)
OHB-Cancer (Score: 6) BL 1.81 (1.64–1.97) 1.84 (1.62–2.05) 1.80 (1.62–1.98) 1.78 (1.57–2.00)
I 2.04 (1.94–2.18) 2.12 (2.02–2.23) 2.00 (1.89–2.11) 1.99 (1.84–2.14)
II 1.95 (1.88–2.22) 2.03 (1.67–2.17) 1.92 (1.75–2.26) 1.90 (1.91–2.42)
III 3.77 (3.61–3.93) 3.88 (3.60–4.26) 3.50 (3.12–3.79) 3.94 (3.59–4.26)
IV 3.61 (3.42–3.77) 3.66 (3.42–3.87) 3.39 (3.18–3.63) 3.79 (3.59–4.04)
OHB-Composite (Score: 12) BL 3.42 (3.18–3.72) 3.39 (3.09–3.69) 3.59 (3.29–3.89) 3.42 (3.12–3.71)
I 4.29 (4.00–4.58) 4.37 (4.09–4.65) 4.14 (3.81–4.46) 4.36 (4.09–4.63)
II 4.03 (3.74–4.32) 4.04 (3.83–4.26) 3.96 (3.73–4.20) 4.10 (3.92–4.28)
III 7.66 (7.36–7.95) 7.64 (7.35–7.99) 7.21 (6.89–7.53) 8.12 (7.86–8.38)
IV 7.44 (7.15–7.72) 7.30 (6.97–7.47) 7.14 (6.82–7.47) 7.92 (7.60–8.24)
DMFT-Composite BL 0.16 (0.11–0.21) 0.13 (0.07–0.19) 0.19 (0.13–0.26) 0.17 (0.11–0.23)
I 0.16 (0.12–0.21) 0.13 (0.07–0.20) 0.19 (0.13–0.26) 0.17 (0.11–0.23)
II 0.20 (0.15–0.24) 0.17 (0.10–0.24) 0.22 (0.15–0.28) 0.20 (0.14–0.27)
III 0.28 (0.23–0.33) 0.25 (0.17–0.33) 0.30 (0.22–0.38) 0.29 (0.21–0.36)
IV 0.30 (0.25–0.35) 0.31 (0.26–0.36) 0.31 (0.26–0.36) 0.29 (0.21–0.36)
OHS-Composite BL 3.64 (3.06–4.22) 4.20 (3.52–4.88) 3.49 (2.81–4.16) 3.46 (2.79–4.13)
I 3.12 (2.55–3.68) 3.59 (3.02–4.16) 3.12 (2.55–3.68) 3.06 (2.47–3.65)
II 2.63 (2.08–3.19) 3.09 (2.68–3.50) 2.77 (2.36–3.18) 2.56 (2.16–2.96)
III 4.44 (3.86–5.02) 4.60 (4.15–5.06) 4.56 (4.11–5.01) 4.68 (4.23–5.12)
IV 4.85 (4.29–5.41) 5.20 (4.66–5.74) 4.86 (4.32–5.39) 5.00 (4.47–5.53)
  1. aAll scores adjusted for sex, type of school, clustering effect and baseline values using Generalized Estimating Equations; cumulative scores are also adjusted for OHE strategy; Evaluation I: After single OHE session; Evaluation II: Six months after single OHE session; Evaluation III: Six months after RR-OHE; Evaluation IV: Twelve months after RR-OHE; DL group was used as positive control