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Table 4 Factors related to “not good quality of life” and “unsatisfactory health” at 5 years

From: Five years after the accident, whiplash casualties still have poorer quality of life in the physical domain than other mildly injured casualties: analysis of the ESPARR cohort

  Not good overall quality of life Unsatisfactory health
  Adj RR 95 % CI Adj RR 95 % CI Adj RR 95 % CI Adj RR 95 % CI
  Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2
Adjustment factors
Age > =35 years 2.10 1.41–3.13 1.95 1.30–2.92 1.23 0.89–1.69 1.17 0.87–1.57
Gender: female 1.29 0.85–1.94 1.13 0.74–1.72 1.27 0.91–1.76 1.00 0.73–1.37
Other factors
Education level
<school-leaving cert 1.43 0.82–2.47 1.10 0.61–1.99 1.69 1.05–2.70 -  
>school-leaving cert. 0.62 0.31–1.24 0.56 0.28–1.11 1.12 0.65–1.93 -  
Intention to lodge a complaint -   -   1.64 1.11–2.42 -  
Psychological history 1.63 1.11–2.38 1.69 1.16–2.46 1.61 1.18–2.20 1.76 1.30–2.37
PTSD 1.97 1.30–2.98 1.78 1.17–2.70 1.61 1.16–2.24 1.48 1.10–1.99
Factor of interest
Whiplash grade1 0.87 0.51–1.51 0.80 0.47–1.36 0.91 0.57–1.46 0.83 0.53–1.30
Whiplash grade2 1.43 0.93–2.17 1.24 0.81–1.90 1.48 1.05 –2.08 1.19 0.85–1.65
Suffering from Pain at 5 years - - 1.96 1.27–3.03 - - 2.75 1.98–3.83
  1. (modified Poisson regression models), model 1 without pain in the model; model 2 with pain)