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Table 3 Characteristics of income-education groups and association with incidence of CHD stratified by 65 years

From: The impact of the combination of income and education on the incidence of coronary heart disease in the prospective Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort study

  High income-high education Low incomea-high education High income-low educationb Low incomea-low educationb P-Value
Age   <65  
 N 7234 3696 167 723  
 Age, mean ± SD 56.6 ± 5.00 57.5 ± 4.94 56.9 ± 5.14 58.4 ± 4.70 <0.001
 Black, n (%) 2468 (34.1) 2115 (57.2) 69 (41.3) 525 (72.6) <0.001
 Women, n (%) 3844 (53.1) 2516 (68.1) 78 (46.7) 494 (68.3) <0.001
 Had diabetes, n (%) 932 (13.3) 878 (24.7) 28 (17.1) 220 (31.7) <0.001
 Hypertension, n (%) 3157 (43.7) 2161 (58.6) 79 (47.3) 512 (71.0) <0.001
 Antihypertensive medication use, n (%) 2676 (37.3) 1845 (36.7) 61 (37.4) 445 (62.4) <0.001
 Statin use, n (%) 1758 (24.5) 881 (24.0) 39 (23.4) 199 (27.9) 0.177
 Current Smoking, n (%) 971 (13.5) 904 (34.5) 41 (24.7) 231 (32.0) <0.001
 # of Events 131 137 3 44  
 Person-years 42525.61 20566.18 972.03 3803.07  
 Incidence Rate per 1000 person-years (95 % CI) 3.0 (2.6–3.6) 6.4 (5.4–7.6) 3.0 (1.0–9.4) 10.8 (8.0–14.6)  
 Crude HR (95 % CI) ref 2.23 (1.76–2.83) 0.96 (0.31–3.02) 3.58 (2.56–4.99)  
 Fully adjusted HR (95 % CI)c ref 1.69 (1.30–2.20) 0.69 (0.22–2.16) 2.07 (1.42–3.01)  
Age   ≥65  
 N 3921 4259 126 1286 <0.001
 Age, mean ± SD 71.4 ± 5.35 72.8 ± 5.87 72.7 ± 5.76 73.3 ± 6.12 <0.001
 Black, n (%) 1082 (27.6) 1832 (43.0) 59 (46.8) 905 (70.4) <0.001
 Women, n (%) 1625 (41.4) 2822 (66.3) 35 (27.8) 780 (60.7) <0.001
 Had diabetes, n (%) 616 (16.2) 885 (21.7) 34 (28.1) 411 (33.6) <0.001
 Hypertension, n (%) 2321 (59.4) 2782 (65.5) 87 (69.1) 934 (72.7) <0.001
 Antihypertensive medication use, n (%) 2005 (51.4) 2394 (56.8) 76 (60.1) 811 (64.0) <0.001
 Statin use, n (%) 1332 (34.3) 1299 (30.7) 47 (37.3) 426 (33.5) 0.0031
 Current Smoking, n (%) 248 (6.34) 478 (11.3) 13 (10.3) 199 (15.5) <0.001
 # of Events 204 188 11 91  
 Person-years 23226.34 24270.08 668.03 6874.68  
 Incidence Rate (95 % CI) 9.0 (7.8–10.3) 7.4 (6.4–8.5) 15.8 (8.8–28.6) 12.3 (10.0–15.1)  
 Crude HR (95 % CI) ref 0.88 (0.73–1.07) 1.82 (1.02–3.25) 1.58 (1.27–1.98)  
 Fully adjusted HR (95 % CI)c ref 0.82 (0.67–1.01) 1.39 (0.77–2.49) 1.16 (0.90–1.50)  
  1. aLow income defined as annual household income <$35,000. bLow education defined <high school education
  2. cFully adjusted adjusts for sex, age, race, geographic region of residence, smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, albumin-to-creatinine ratio, baseline cardiovascular disease (stroke, periphery artery disease, aortic aneurism), and diabetes, insurance status, statins, antihypertensive medications, insulin use, baseline depressive symptoms and perceived stress
  3. CI confidence interval, SD standard deviation