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Table 2 Incident CHD events, incidence rates, and hazard ratios for income-education categories e in REGARDS participants

From: The impact of the combination of income and education on the incidence of coronary heart disease in the prospective Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort study

  High income-high education n = 11155 Low incomea-high education n = 7955 High income-low educationb n = 293 Low incomea- low educationb n = 2009
Events, n 335 325 14 135
Age-adjusted Incidence Rate per 1000 person-years (95 % CI) 5.2 (4.7–5.8) 6.3 (5.6–7.1) 8.1 (4.8–13.7) 10.1 (8.4–12.1)
p-value for difference compared to high income/high education ref 0.02 0.10 <.001
Models
 Crude Analysis (95 % CI) ref 1.42 (1.22–1.65) 1.66 (0.96–2.86) 2.51 (2.08–3.03)
 Model 1 HR (95 % CI) ref 1.40 (1.19–1.64) 1.43 (0.84–2.45) 2.15 (1.75–2.63)
 Model 2 HR (95 % CI) ref 1.10 (0.93–1.29) 1.18 (0.69–2.02) 1.45 (1.18–1.80)
 Model 3 HR (95 % CI) ref 1.07 (0.92–1.27) 1.18 (0.69–2.03) 1.42 (1.14–1.76)
  1. aLow income defined as annual household income <$35,000
  2. bLow education defined as <high school education
  3. Model 1 adjusts for sex, age, race, and geographic region of residence
  4. Model 2 adjusts for smoking, physical activity, and alcohol consumption
  5. Model 3 adjusts for body mass index, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, albumin-to-creatinine ratio, baseline cardiovascular disease (stroke,, peripheral vascular disease, aortic aneurism), diabetes, statins, antihypertensive medications, insulin, insurance status, baseline depressive symptoms and perceived stress
  6. HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval