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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of REGARDS participants without coronary heart disease (N = 24,461), by Income-Education Category

From: The impact of the combination of income and education on the incidence of coronary heart disease in the prospective Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort study

Characteristics Overall High income-high education n = 11155 Low incomea-high education n = 7955 High income-low educationb n = 293 Low incomea- low educationb n = 2009 P-Value
Demographics
 Age, mean ± SD 64.1 ± 9.3 61.8 ± 8.7 65.7 ± 9.4 63.7 ± 9.5 67.9 ± 9.7 <.0001
 Women, n (%) 12194 (57.0) 5469 (49.0) 5338 (67.1) 113 (38.6) 1274 (63.4) <.0001
 Black, n (%) 9054 (42.3) 3549 (31.8) 3947 (49.6) 128 (43.7) 1430 (71.2) <.0001
 Region of residence, n (%)       <.0001
  Nonbelt 9563 (44.7) 5222 (46.8) 3472 (43.7) 127 (43.3) 742 (36.9)  
  Stroke Beltc 7409 (34.6) 3594 (32.2) 2912 (36.6) 92 (31.4) 811 (40.4)  
  Stroke Buckled 4439 (20.7) 2338 (21.0) 1571 (19.8) 74 (25.3) 456 (22.7)  
  Urban residence, n (%) 15213 (78.6) 7826 (77.4) 5760 (80.3) 202 (75.7) 1425 (79.3) <.0001
Physiologic risk factors
 Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg, mean ± SD 127.1 ± 16.5 124.7 ± 15.3 129.0 ± 17.0 128.7 ± 16.1 132.2 ± 18.2 <.0001
 Body mass index (kg/m2), mean ± SD 29.3 ± 6.2 28.9 ± 5.7 29.7 ± 6.7 29.5 ± 5.7 30.4 ± 6.8 <.0001
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL), mean ± SD 195.1 ± 39.3 194.0 ± 37.3 196.7 ± 41.3 190.5 ± 39.9 193.1 ± 40.6 0.75
 High density lipoprotein cholesterol (mg/dL), mean ± SD 52.8 ± 16.3 52.3 ± 16.3 53.1 ± 16.1 48.3 ± 14.6 51.6 ± 15.4 0.18
 High sensitivity C-reactive protein, median [interquartile range] 2.2 [0.9–5.0] 1.8[0.8–4.2] 2.6[1.1–6.0] 2.6[1.3–5.7] 3.2[1.3–6.7] <.0001
 Urinary albumin to creatinine Ratio, median [interquartile range] 7.1 [4.5–14.5] 6.25[4.2–11.7] 7.9 [4.9–17.17] 6.9 [4.4–13.9] 9.3 [5.2–24.3 <.0001
Health behaviors
 Smoking status, n (%)       <.0001
  Never 10036 (47.0) 5446 (49.0) 3676 (46.4) 99 (33.9) 815 (40.7)  
  Past 8226 (38.5) 4456 (40.1) 2872 (36.2) 139 (47.6) 759 (37.9)  
  Current 3085 (14.5) 1219 (11.0) 1382 (17.4) 54 (18.5) 430 (21.5)  
 No Exercise, n (%) 6988 (33.1) 3097 (28.0) 2939 (37.5) 97 (34.0) 855 (43.4) <.0001
 Alcohol use, n (%)       <.0001
  Heavy 887 (4.2) 576 (5.2) 255 (3.3) 10 (3.5) 46 (2.4)  
  Moderate 7271 (34.6) 4784 (43.5) 2057 (26.4) 93 (32.8) 337 (17.2)  
  None 12870 (61.2) 5628 (51.2) 5486 (70.4) 181 (63.7) 1575 (80.4)  
Medical history
 Diabetes, n (%) 4004 (19.4) 1548 (14.3) 1763 (23.1) 62 (21.8) 631 (32.9) <.0001
 Vascular disease, n (%) 1373 (13.7) 435 (3.90) 655 (8.23) 24 (8.19) 259 (12.9) <.0001
 Antihypertensive medication use, n (%) 10312 (48.6) 4680 (42.3) 4239 (53.9) 137 (47.6) 1256 (63.4) <.0001
 Insulin use, n (%) 953 (4.4) 316 (2.8) 445 (5.6) 11 (3.8) 181 (9.0) <.0001
 Statin use, n (%) 5980 (28.2) 3089 (27.9) 2180 (27.6) 86 (29.4) 625 (31.5) 0.0057
Psychosocial measures and insurance coverage
 Depressive Symptoms (CES-D ≥4), n (%) 2163 (10.2) 631 (5.7) 1074 (13.6) 26 (8.9) 432 (21.6) <.0001
 Perceived Stress, median score [interquartile range] 3.0[0–5.0] 2.0[0–4.0] 3.0[1.0–6.0] 3.0[0–5.0] 4.0[1.0–7.0] <.0001
 Insured, n (%) 1990 (93.0) 10840 (97.2) 7026 (88.4) 277 (94.5) 1764 (87.9) <.0001
  1. aLow income defined as annual household income <$35,000
  2. bLow education defined <high school education
  3. cDefined as the states of Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee and the noncoastal regions within the states of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia
  4. d Defined as the coastal regions within the states of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia
  5. CI confidence interval, SD standard deviation, CES-D center for epidemiologic studies depression