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Table 1 Frequency distribution of participants’ positive, neutral and negative judgments by category and sub-category

From: How do national cultures influence lay people’s preferences toward doctors’ style of communication? A comparison of 35 focus groups from an European cross national research

  Country   NL    IT    UK    BE  
Category Sub-category Neg Neutl Pos Neg Neut Pos Neg Neut Pos Neg Neut Pos
Non-verbal communication Facial expression 2 0 6 1 5 11 0 3 3 2 1 0
Eye contact 0 1 33 0 0 6 4 1 36 0 1 37
Touch 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1
Others 7 6 15 1 7 22 25 2 17 1 5 23
Reading and Writing 7 6 4 4 2 14 12 11 2 32 5 3
Laughing 6 2 5 0 0 0 0 3 0 5 0 3
Structuring Changing topics/signposting 0 1 37 4 0 7 1 0 11 5 15 17
Flexibility 3 0 30 1 0 32 12 27 31 0 1 124
Time issues 4 10 14 1 2 12 16 9 19 15 25 25
Open/closing interview 0 10 31 0 2 21 11 15 26 1 8 19
Summarizing Summarizing 1 0 44 9 0 32 10 8 25 4 2 27
Patient-involving Sharing plans/ideas 3 0 15 1 0 18 9 15 8 5 1 20
Asking permission 9 0 9 6 2 3 4 5 14 8 0 7
Verifying 4 3 9 3 0 12 0 5 10 0 0 7
Speaking peculiarities Repetition 33 1 3 9 2 1 30 3 1 9 2 0
Fillers 14 1 4 12 0 7 11 0 0 15 0 0
Comprehensibility 3 1 8 0 3 7 5 0 9 0 1 14
Task-oriented attitude of the doctor Self-confident 1 0 25 1 1 47 2 15 86 0 1 52
Complete picture 0 1 45 0 0 56 0 8 47 6 6 41
Business-like/Straightforward 5 6 38 0 2 31 4 7 22 5 4 34
Other attitudes 2 2 9 0 0 0 5 45 22 3 13 11
Clarity of interview 1 0 23 0 0 18 0 5 12 0 0 19
Competency 0 5 70 0 0 122 12 25 81 0 5 125
Collecting information Medical 9 5 45 0 0 16 19 19 41 1 0 30
Bio-psychological 4 8 32 1 0 19 12 9 8 4 3 24
Psychosocial 9 7 21 6 0 24 7 13 17 31 8 28
Giving information Medical 2 1 22 0 5 31 3 18 23 3 1 58
Bio-psychological 3 4 17 0 1 4 2 3 18 2 0 15
Psychosocial 1 2 0 0 1 1 2 6 10 1 0 4
Providing solution Providing solutions 0 4 44 1 5 35 4 5 11 1 2 32
Affective emotional attitude of the doctor Inviting attitude 1 1 25 0 0 55 0 2 34 0 0 31
Pleasant attitude 0 0 42 0 0 32 7 9 74 0 0 43
Show interest /commitment 0 1 36 0 0 77 1 4 44 4 4 94
Empathetic 0 4 41 0 0 15 0 3 22 0 4 21
Facilitating 0 0 12 0 0 36 1 0 6 0 0 54
Reassurance / trust 2 2 89 0 1 74 1 3 36 5 2 105
Neutral/No personal remark 12 5 38 0 2 22 3 1 2 0 5 49
Listening 0 0 24 0 0 12 0 4 34 0 2 15
   148 100 966 61 43 923 235 311 863 168 127 1212