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Table 2 Characteristics of 3 study groups

From: Comparison of perceptions of obesity among adults with central obesity with and without additional cardiometabolic risk factors and among those who were formally obese, 3 years after screening for central obesity

   Baseline 3 year follow-up
   Persistent cardiometabolic risk group (n = 80) Persistent obesity group (n = 63) Improved cardiometabolic risk group (n = 49) Persistent cardiometabolic risk group (n = 80) Persistent obesity group (n = 63) Improved cardiometabolic risk group (n = 49)
Gender (% male)   52.5 11.1*** 65.3    
Ethnicity (% Western European)   95.0 98.4 100.0    
Higher education level (%)   28.7 27.0 30.6    
Age (years)   49.4 (9.6) 45.5 (9.2) 49.7 (10.9) 52.8 (10.0) 48.9 (9.2)** 53.2 (10.8)
BMI (kg/m2)   31.0 (3.6) 28.8 (3.3) 28.4 (2.1) 30.7 (3.7) 29.3 (3.4)** 25.9 (2.5)***
Waist circumference (cm) Men 112.8 (10) 106.5 (4) 105.5 (5) 109.3 (12.2) 109.1 (5.3) 99.1 (3.8)***
  Women 101.8 (10) 95.3 (8) 92.0 (14) 98.9 (8.8) 95.2 (8.8) 82.0 (14.8)***
Blood pressure (mmHg) Systolic 145.9 (17.3) 119.9 (5.9) 145.8 (13.5) 137.9 (14.8) 122.3 (8.4)*** 133.6 (10.9)
  Diastolic 89.6 (7.6) 75.5 (4.7) 88.4 (7.6) 83.9 (7.2) 75.6 (5.5)*** 80.9 (7.9)
Triglycerides (mmol/L)   1.8 (6) 0.9 (0) 1.9 (1) 2.1 (0.9) 1.2 (0.5)*** 1.5 (1.0)***
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) Men 1.0 (0.4) 1.3 (0.4) 1.5 (0.7) 1.1 (0.4) 1.2 (0.4) 1.2 (0.5)
  Women 1.2 (0.3) 1.6 (0.5) 1.5 (0.6) 1.2 (0.2) 1.5 (0.5)*** 1.4 (0.6)**
Fasting glucose (mmol/L)   5.2 (1.2) 4.8 (0.5) 4.9 (0.9) 5.5 (1.1) 5.0 (0.5)*** 5.0 (0.8)**
  1. Data are reported as mean (standard deviation) for age, BMI and blood pressure, as median (inter quartile range) for waist circumference, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and fasting glucose or percentage
  2. P-value for difference at 3 year follow-up between persistent cardiometabolic risk and persistent obesity groups: * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001
  3. P-value for difference at 3 year follow-up between persistent and improved cardiometabolic risk groups: * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001
  4. BMI body mass index, HDL cholesterol high-density lipoprotein cholesterol