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Table 2 Participants’ health-related variables by Stages of Change (n = 506)

From: Validity of the Stages of Change in Steps instrument (SoC-Step) for achieving the physical activity goal of 10,000 steps per day

  Precontemplation
n = 16
Mean ± SD
Contemplation
n = 201
Mean ± SD
Preparation
n = 214
Mean ± SD
Action
n = 13
Mean ± SD
Maintenance
n = 60
Mean ± SD
p-valuea
Steps per dayb 7,147 ± 3,166 6,998 ± 2,119 7,077 ± 2,210 7,864 ± 2,550 8,464 ± 2,917 p = 0.015
Waist circumference 102.7 ± 13.5 100.6 ± 14.8 101.3 ± 15.2 100.5 ± 17.5 91.8 ± 12.8 p < 0.001
Body mass index 30.7 ± 5.5 29.7 ± 6.1 29.9 ± 6.0 28.3 ± 4.8 25.2 ± 4.1 p < 0.001
Intention 2.5 ± 1.3 3.8 ± 0.7 4.3 ± 0.6 4.0 ± 0.7 4.4 ± 0.6 p < 0.001
Self-efficacy PA 6.2 ± 2.8 8.1 ± 1.8 8.9 ± 1.6 9.9 ± 0.8 10.0 ± 1.1 p < 0.001
Self-efficacy barriers to PA 5.1 ± 2.4 6.5 ± 1.9 7.0 ± 1.9 7.5 ± 1.9 7.8 ± 1.6 p < 0.001
Attitudes 3.1 ± 1.0 4.0 ± 0.5 4.1 ± 0.5 4.1 ± 0.6 4.1 ± 0.7 p < 0.001
Physical functioning 76.3 ± 27.2 82.6 ± 18.2 85.9 ± 15.0 87.3 ± 17.5 94.8 ± 7.9 p < 0.001
Role physical 68.8 ± 38.2 78.7 ± 34.5 82.8 ± 30.5 76.9 ± 33.0 92.9 ± 16.7 p = 0.035
Energy fatigue 52.8 ± 17.9 53.2 ± 18.8 55.7 ± 20.5 66.2 ± 15.6 64.7 ± 18.7 p = 0.001
Emotional wellbeing 68.3 ± 19.8 75.4 ± 16.5 78.7 ± 14.8 78.8 ± 14.5 81.1 ± 13.8 p = 0.041
Role emotional 56.3 ± 48.3 78.3 ± 33.6 82.9 ± 30.6 87.2 ± 32.0 87.8 ± 28.1 p = 0.021
Social functioning 77.3 ± 25.1 85.1 ± 19.0 86.7 ± 19.0 81.7 ± 22.6 91.3 ± 17.0 p = 0.033
Pain score 72.7 ± 27.4 78.0 ± 20.9 77.7 ± 21.9 72.3 ± 29.8 87.6 ± 15.0 p = 0.015
General health 50.9 ± 16.1 62.0 ± 19.9 63.6 ± 20.0 68.8 ± 11.9 79.1 ± 15.0 p < 0.001
  1. Note: Means and SD shown for descriptive purposes
  2. aExact p value is from Kruskal-Wallis test of overall difference among Stages of Change distributions (not based on means, due to data skewness)
  3. bSteps per day adjusted for total accelerometer wear time