Skip to main content

Table 2 Unit cost data for the treatment of cardiovascular disease and related condition (USD 2012)

From: Provider costs for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and related conditions in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

Treatment and Management of Acute/Chronic Cardiovascular and Related Conditions
Ischemic Heart Disease
   Outpatient Visit (All direct medical costs) [41] China 245.40 Per outpatient visit China (2003) $51.36 Per outpatient visit
   CABG Procedure (Procedure and Medical Therapy) [32] South Africa 11,431.00 Per patient US (2001) $22,500.46 Per patient
   CABG Procedure (Procedure only, no medical therapy) [64] China 7,300.00 Per patient US (2007) $10,339.01 Per patient
   CABG Procedure (Procedure and Medical Therapy) [65] Armenia 3,368.19 Per patient US (2005) $5,546.46 Per patient
   CABG Procedure (Procedure and Medical Therapy) [66] India 8,055.00 Per patient US (2006) $11,630.62 Per patient
   Stenting Procedure (Procedure only, no medical therapy) [64] China 10,000.00 Per patient US (2007) $14,163.03 Per patient
   Catheter-based revascularization Inpatient Treatment [32] South Africa 4,737.00 Per patient US (2001) $9,324.18 Per patient
   Total operative procedures and examinations [67] Brazil 444.29 Per patient Brazil (2001) $455.47 Per patient
   Coronary Angioplasty Diagnostic Strategy Including Therapy [64] China 3,568.00 Per patient US (2007) $5,053.37 Per patient
   Computed Tomography Angiography and Coronary Angioplasty Diagnostic Strategy [64] China 2,971.00 Per patient US (2007) $4,207.84 Per patient
   Inpatient Visit (All direct medical costs) [33] Argentina 4,245.39 Per patient US (2007) $4,460.54 Per patient
   Inpatient Visit (All direct medical costs) [41] China 11,008.20 Per inpatient stay China (2003) $2,304.00 Per inpatient stay
   Inpatient Visit (All direct medical costs) [68] Vietnam 31,400,000.00 Per inpatient stay Vietnam (2005) $3,257.15 Per inpatient stay
   Average Inpatient Treatment (All direct medical costs) [32] South Africa 5,636.00 Per patient US (2001) $11,093.74 Per patient
   Additional cost if a CABG or valve replacement surgery results in a hospital-acquired infection [66] India 14,818.00 Per patient US (2006) $21,395.72 Per patient
   Post CHD with CABG (1st year) [32] South Africa 1,300.00 Per year US (2001) $2,558.88 Per patient per year
   Post CHD with CABG (subsequent years) [32] South Africa 600.00 Per year US (2001) $1,181.02 Per patient per year
   Post CHD without CABG (1st year) [32] South Africa 1,500.00 Per year US (2001) $2,952.56 Per patient per year
   Post CHD without CABG (subsequent years) [32] South Africa 840.00 Per year US (2001) $1,653.43 Per patient per year
Stroke
  Hemorrhagic Stroke Inpatient Visit for Stroke Care (Average 11.8 Days LOS) [17] Turkey 1,348.00 Per patient US (2007) $1,444.46 Per patient
   Inpatient Visit for Stroke Care (Average 12 Days LOS) [18] Brazil 1,831.00 Per patient US (2007) $2,388.33 Per patient
   Tertiary Treatment and Follow-Up - Coiling (6 months) [69] Pakistan 304,800.00 Per patient Pakistan (2007) $6,236.79 Per patient
   Tertiary Treatment and Follow-Up - Endovascular clipping (6 months) [69] Pakistan 187,620.00 Per patient Pakistan (2007) $3,839.06 Per patient
  Ischemic Stroke Inpatient Visit for Stroke Care (Average 10.4 Days LOS) [17] Turkey 956.00 Per patient US (2007) $1,024.41 Per patient
   Inpatient Visit for Stroke Care (Average 13.3 Days LOS) [18] Brazil 1,645.00 Per patient US (2007) $2,145.71 Per patient
   Inpatient Visit for Stroke Care (Average 18.5 Days LOS) [70] China 67.00 Per patient per day US (2010) $77.76 Per patient
   Inpatient Visit for Stroke Care (Average 18.5 Days LOS) [70] China 983.00 Per patient US (2010) $1,140.84 Per patient
   Diagnostics and preventative care for high-risk patients at a tertiary hospital [71] China 435.40 Per patient per year US (2010) $505.31 Per patient per year
  Stroke (Non-Specified) Outpatient Visit [41] China 264.80 Per outpatient visit China (2003) $55.42 Per outpatient visit
   Direct Medical Costs for Managing a Stroke Patient in Year Following Stroke [72] Nigeria 62,217.00 Per patient US (2012) $62,217.00 Per patient
   Direct Medical and follow up (6-months) [73] India 57,381.00 Per patient India (2011) $1,173.80 Per patient
   Inpatient Visit for Stroke Care: Average across all wards (3–5 Days Ave. LOS) [31] Pakistan 1,179.00 Per patient US (2001) $2,160.99 Per patient
   Inpatient Visit for Stroke Care: ICU (3–5 Days LOS) [31] Pakistan 3,583.50 Per patient US (2001) $6,568.20 Per patient
   Inpatient Visit for Stroke Care: Private Ward (3–5 Days LOS) [31] Pakistan 1,248.00 Per patient US (2001) $2,287.46 Per patient
   Inpatient Visit for Stroke Care: General Ward (3–5 Days LOS) [31] Pakistan 1,010.00 Per patient US (2001) $1,851.23 Per patient
   Inpatient Visit for Stroke Care (LOS not stated) [32] South Africa 8,633.00 Per patient US (2001) $16,992.95 Per patient
   Inpatient Visit for Stroke Care (LOS not stated) [74] Tanzania 138,000.00 Per patient Tanzania (2006) $160.18 Per patient
   Inpatient Visit for Stroke Care (LOS not stated) [33] Argentina 3,455.48 Per patient US (2007) $3,630.60 Per patient
   Inpatient Visit for Stroke Care (Up to 3 Days LOS) [43] Congo, Rep. 158,120.00 Per patient Congo, Rep. (2006) $397.19 Per patient
   Inpatient Visit for Stroke Care (LOS not stated) [41] China 7,953.10 Per inpatient stay China (2003) $1,664.57 Per inpatient stay
   Inpatient Visit for Stroke Care: small hospital (Average 20 Days LOS) [20] China 7,119.00 Per inpatient stay China (2006) $1,388.31 Per inpatient stay
   Inpatient Visit for Stroke Care: tertiary hospital (Average 20 Days LOS) [20] China 12,344.00 Per inpatient stay China (2006) $2,407.26 Per inpatient stay
   Inpatient Visit for Stroke Care (Average 6.4 Days LOS) [19] Malaysia 3,696.40 Per inpatient stay Malaysia (2005) $1,431.57 Per patient per admission
Heart Failure
   Inpatient treatment for heart failure due to systolic or diastolic dysfunction with a Chagas’ cardiomyopathy diagnosis [75] Brazil 467.00 Per day Brazil (2006) $324.23 Per day
   Outpatient Treatment [76] Brazil 14.40 Per outpatient visit Brazil (2002) $13.61 Per outpatient visit
   Outpatient Treatment plus medications [76] Brazil 557.28 Per year Brazil (2002) $526.79 Per patient per year
   Inpatient treatment for heart failure due to systolic or diastolic dysfunction with Non-Chagas’ cardiomyopathy (other etiologies) [75] Brazil 308.00 Per day Brazil (2006) $213.84 Per day
   Inpatient Care (Up to 3 Days LOS) [43] Congo, Rep. 81,900.00 Per patient Congo, Rep. (2006) $205.73 Per patient
   Inpatient Care (Average 6.5 Days LOS) [76] Brazil 4,033.62 Per inpatient stay Brazil (2002) $3,812.90 Per inpatient stay
Neglected Heart Diseases
  Congenital heart disease Operations and treatments, including pre and post-operative care [67] Brazil 1,428.05 Per patient Brazil (2001) $1,463.95 Per patient
  Rheumatic Heart Disease Inpatient Treatment (Average 7 Days LOS) [62] South Africa 1,597.00 Per patient US (2010) $1,580.49 Per patient
   Tertiary care (including inpatient care and surgery) [61] India 1,547.17 Per patient India (2007) $46.35 Per patient
Type Two Diabetes Mellitus
  Diabetic Foot Ulcers Total treatment [21] Pakistan 2,700.00 Per patient Pakistan (2005) 64.15–$1165.65 Per patient
   Total Treatment (healed) [22] China 1,673.00 Per patient $Int (2010) $585.60 Per patient
   Total Treatment (trans-tibial amputation) [22] China 21,372.00 Per patient $Int (2010) $7,480.87 Per patient
   Total Treatment (healed) [22] India 1,192.00 Per patient $Int (2010) $85.51 Per patient
   Total Treatment (trans-tibial amputation) [22] India 19,599.00 Per patient $Int (2010) $1,405.97 Per patient
   Total Treatment (healed) [22] Tanzania 102.00 Per patient $Int (2010) $0.24 Per patient
   Total Treatment (trans-tibial amputation) [22] Tanzania 3,060.00 Per patient $Int (2010) $7.30 Per patient
   Total Treatment [23] Nigeria 93,256.70 Per patient Nigeria (2003) $1,618.55 Per patient
  Retinopathy Retinopathy screening in a primary care setting [24] South Africa 22.00 Per patient US (2007) $26.10 Per patient
   Laser treatment in retinopathy confirmed cases [24] South Africa 144.00 Per patient US (2007) $170.85 Per patient
   Screening Retinal examination at a hospital [25] India 5.84 Per patient US (2009) $7.05 Per patient
   Screening single laser photocoagulation treatment at a hospital [25] India 7.51 Per patient US (2009) $9.07 Per patient
   Screening Using Telescreening in rural areas [25] India 7.36 Per patient US (2009) $8.88 Per patient
End-Stage Renal Disease
   Dialysis [29] China 56,584.00 Per year US (2004) $94,356.62 Per patient per year
   Dialysis [29] Malaysia 19,054.00 Per year US (2004) $28,871.91 Per patient per year
   Dialysis [29] Thailand 31,651.00 Per year US (2004) $52,903.20 Per patient per year
   1 session of hemodialysis in a hospital [27] Jordan 72.00 Per session US (2010) $78.76 Per session
   Hemodialysis maintenance session in a hospital [26] Iran, Islamic Rep. 52.60 Per session US (2007) $96.66 Per session
   Hemodialysis in a hospital [28] Sudan 15,747.68 Per patient per year Sudan (2009) $8,374.01 Per patient per year
   Hemodialysis in a hospital [28] Sudan 146.58 Per patient per session Sudan (2009) $77.95 Per patient per session
   Renal Transplant (first year expenses) [29] China 54,886.00 Per year US (2004) $91,525.12 Per patient per year
   Maintenance post index year of transplant patient [29] China 27,259.00 Per year US (2004) $45,455.73 Per patient per year
   Renal Transplant (first year expenses) [29] Malaysia 70,022.00 Per year US (2004) $106,102.06 Per patient per year
   Maintenance post index year of transplant patient [29] Malaysia 14,111.00 Per year US (2004) $21,381.94 Per patient per year
   Renal Transplant (first year expenses) [29] Thailand 45,953.00 Per year US (2004) $76,808.34 Per patient per year
   Maintenance post index year of transplant patient [29] Thailand 19,349.00 Per year US (2004) $32,340.97 Per patient per year
   Kidney transplantation, including operation and following year [28] Sudan 34,097.85 Per patient Sudan (2009) $18,131.93 Per patient
   Kidney transplantation, after the first year [28] Sudan 24,499.00 Per patient Sudan (2009) $13,027.63 Per patient
   Transplantation Procedure [30] Iran, Islamic Rep. 2,048.00 Per patient US (2005) $4,769.20 Per patient
   Total cost (Transplant procedure, 1 year immunosuppression, donor costs) [30] Iran, Islamic Rep. 9,224.00 Per patient US (2005) $21,480.05 Per patient
  1. Definitions: Per capita costs were divided by the population of the study country in 2012 as defined by the World Bank. Primary prevention defined as actions to reduce the probability of initial occurrence of disease. Secondary prevention defined as actions following the occurrence of disease to prevent either the recurrence of the same event or to reduce the risk of a different but related event
  2. Abbreviations: CABG Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting, CHD Coronary Heart Disease, LOS Length of Stay, ICU Intensive Care Unit