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Table 1 Unit cost data for the treatment of cardiovascular risk conditions (USD 2012)

From: Provider costs for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and related conditions in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

  Sub-Condition (If Applicable) Intervention or Treatment Country Cost Presented in Paper Unit Currency (Year) Cost in USD (2012) Unit
Management of cardiovascular risk conditions
Hypertension
   Hypertension Drug Treatment [34] Nigeria 300.00–2,100.00 Per month Nigeria (2010) $2.38–$16.66 Per patient per year
   Pharmacological high blood pressure and cholesterol treatment [35] Tanzania 1.57–54.28 Per year US (2005) $2.21–$76.29 Per patient per year
   Pharmacological high blood pressure treatment [33] Argentina 49.72 Per patient per year US (2007) $52.24 Per patient per year
   Community Hypertension Control Program: Home Health Education and General Practitioner [36] Pakistan 3.99 Per patient per year US (2007) $4.96 Per patient per year
   Community Hypertension Control Program: Home Health Education [36] Pakistan 3.34 Per patient per year US (2007) $4.15 Per patient per year
   Community Hypertension Control Program: General Practitioner [36] Pakistan 0.65 Per patient per year US (2007) $0.81 Per patient per year
   Community Hypertension Reduction Program (1-year) [37] China 7.17 Per patient per year US (2009) $8.67 Per patient per year
   Guideline-Oriented Training Program for Hypertension Control in Community Health Centers [38] China 79.30 Per year US (2002) $138.96 Per year
   Hypertension Outpatient Treatment [32] South Africa 86.00 Per patient per year US (2001) $169.28 Per patient per year
   Hypertension Outpatient Treatment [39] China 487.30 Per patient per year US (2010) $565.54 Per patient per year
   Hypertension Outpatient Treatment at Urban Health Clinic [40] Thailand 916.54 Per patient per year Thailand (1999) $41.42 Per patient per year
   Hypertension Outpatient Treatment [41] China 96.90 Per outpatient visit China (2003) $20.28 Per outpatient visit
   Hypertension Outpatient Treatment and Medications [42] Tanzania 38.00 Per patient per year US (2012) $38.00 Per patient per year
   Hypertension Inpatient Visit [41] China 3,904.00 Per inpatient stay China (2003) $817.10 Per inpatient stay
   Hypertensive Emergency Treatment Cost (Inpatient and Outpatient) [43] Congo, Rep. 159,600.00 Per patient Congo, Rep. (2006) $400.90 Per patient
Hyperlipidemia
   Screening for dyslipidemia among healthy 35–39 year olds [44] Thailand 127.22 Per patient screened Thailand (2008) $4.48 Per patient screened
   Screening for dyslipidemia among healthy 35–60 year olds [45] Thailand 1,043.60 Per case detected Thailand (2008) $36.77 Per case detected
   Pharmacological high cholesterol treatment [33] Argentina 118.79 Per patient per year US (2007) $124.81 Per patient per year
   Home visit by Health Care Professional [40] Thailand 574.86 Per visit Thailand (1999) $25.98 Per visit
Chronic Kidney Disease
   Amlodipine (Anti-hypertensive Drug Therapy for Patients with Diabetes, Hypertension, and Nephropathy) [29] China 2,013.00 Per year US (2004) $3,356.78 Per patient per year
   Irbesartan (Anti-hypertensive Drug Therapy for Patients with Diabetes, Hypertension, and Nephropathy) [29] China 1,660.00 Per year US (2004) $2,768.13 Per patient per year
   Amlodipine (Anti-hypertensive Drug Therapy for Patients with Diabetes, Hypertension, and Nephropathy) [29] Malaysia 332.00 Per year US (2004) $503.07 Per patient per year
   Irbesartan (Anti-hypertensive Drug Therapy for Patients with Diabetes, Hypertension, and Nephropathy) [29] Malaysia 258.00 Per year US (2004) $390.94 Per patient per year
   Amlodipine (Anti-hypertensive Drug Therapy for Patients with Diabetes, Hypertension, and Nephropathy) [29] Thailand 779.00 Per year US (2004) $1,302.06 Per patient per year
   Irbesartan (Anti-hypertensive Drug Therapy for Patients with Diabetes, Hypertension, and Nephropathy) [29] Thailand 1,340.00 Per year US (2004) $2,239.75 Per patient per year
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
   Screening using fasting capillary blood glucose [46] China 10.00 Per test China (2009) $1.77 Per patient
   Screening using Diabetes Risk Score [46] China 5.00 Per test China (2009) $0.89 Per patient
   Screening for diabetes in a community health clinic [47] China 3.00 Per patient US (2007) $4.25 Per patient
   Tertiary Hospital Diagnostic Test [46] China 95.00 Per test China (2009) $16.82 Per patient
   Primary Care - Behavior management program to prevent diabetes [48] India 54.67 Per patient per year US (2006) $78.93 Per patient per year
   Primary Care - Metformin regimen to prevent diabetes [48] India 53.00 Per patient per year US (2006) $76.53 Per patient per year
   Primary Care - Behavior management program with Metformin regime to prevent diabetes [48] India 69.67 Per patient per year US (2006) $100.59 Per patient per year
   Mean total annual direct medical cost (without complication) [49] China 5,313.20 Per year China (2007) $989.16 Per patient per year
   Mean total annual direct medical cost (with complication) [49] China 13,320.10 Per year China (2007) $2,479.82 Per patient per year
   Annual treatment costs (inpatient and outpatient costs) [50] Thailand 6,331.00 Per patient per year Thailand (2001) $277.14 Per patient per year
   Annual treatment costs (inpatient and outpatient costs) [51] Nigeria 47,924.36 Per patient per year Nigeria (2010) $380.14 Per patient per year
   Annual Diabetes Treatment in Community Clinic (Including Inpatient and Outpatient Visits) [52] Brazil 1,319.15 Per year US (2010) $1,335.52 Per patient per year
   Annual treatment costs (inpatient and outpatient costs) [53] India 3,006.00 Per patient per year India (2012) $56.25 Per patient per year
   Urban Health Center providing primary community care [40] Thailand 1,408.59 Per patient per year Thailand (1999) $63.66 Per outpatient visit
   Inpatient stay w/o hypertension (Average 7 Days LOS) [54] India 18,650.00 Per inpatient stay India (2007) $558.77 Per inpatient stay
   Inpatient Stay w/hypertension (Average 5 Days LOS) [54] India 21,000.00 Per inpatient stay India (2007) $629.18 Per inpatient stay
   Inpatient stay w/o hypertension (Average 7 Days LOS) [54] India 28,000.00 Per two years India (2007) $419.45 Per patient per year
   Inpatient Stay w/hypertension (Average 5 Days LOS) [54] India 38,000.00 Per two years India (2007) $569.25 Per patient per year
   Inpatient Treatment: without complication (Average 9.8 Days LOS) [55] China 6,903.93 Per patient China (2006) $1,346.37 Per inpatient stay
   Inpatient Treatment: with chronic complications (Average 9.8 Days LOS) [55] China 7,193.15 Per patient China (2006) $1,402.77 Per inpatient stay
   Inpatient/Hospital Admission [56] Thailand 95.99 Per day US (2008) $112.65 Per day
   Inpatient Treatment in Community Clinic (No LOS Stated) [52] Brazil 26.32 Per year US (2010) $26.65 Per patient per year
   Outpatient Care [56] Thailand 3.94 Per outpatient visit US (2008) $4.63 Per outpatient visit
   Outpatient Care in Community Clinic [52] Brazil 1,216.33 Per year US (2010) $1,231.43 Per patient per year
   Outpatient treatment for patient without complications [57] India 4,493.00 Per year India (2009) $112.05 Per inpatient stay
   Outpatient Treatment [58] Nepal 16.95 Per outpatient visit US (2010) $17.45 Per outpatient visit
   Outpatient Treatment [58] Nepal 130.52 Per year US (2010) $134.38 Per patient per year
   Outpatient Treatment [59] Brazil 1,014.00 Per patient per year US (2007) $1,322.64 Per patient per year
   Outpatient Treatment [60] Pakistan 1,468.90 Per outpatient visit Pakistan (2006) $32.34 Per outpatient visit
   Outpatient Treatment [41] China 163.80 Per outpatient visit China (2003) $34.28 Per outpatient visit
Other clinical management of CVD risk conditions
  Generic primary prevention Modified poly-pill strategy [33] Argentina 103.46 Per patient per year US (2007) $108.70 Per patient per year
   General Outpatient Visit [40] Thailand 67.82 Per outpatient visit Thailand (1999) $3.07 Per outpatient visit
   Bupropion treatment HCW counseling for tobacco cessation [33] Argentina 117.15 Per patient per year US (2007) $123.09 Per patient per year
  Rheumatic Fever Prevention of Rheumatic Fever (throat culture) India 1,088.56 Per patient India (2007) $32.61 Per patient
   Post rheumatic fever prophylaxis [61] India 879.35 Per patient India (2007) $26.35 Per patient
   Inpatient Treatment for acute rheumatic fever [62] South Africa 2,958.00 Per patient US (2010) $2,927.41 Per patient
   Echocardiographic screening for rheumatic heart disease in schoolchildren [63] Fiji 2.07 Per patient screened US (2008) $2.27 Per patient screened