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Table 1 High nicotine dependence by selected socio-demographic characteristics in men aged 26 years and over – univariable logistic regression

From: Patterns of nicotine dependence in four Eastern European countries

Variable Poland (N = 1939) Romania (N = 867) Russia (N = 3558) Ukraine (N = 1865)
  N n % OR (95 % CI) N n % OR (95 % CI) N n % OR (95 % CI) N n % OR (95 % CI)
Sex N = 1939 N = 867 N = 3558 N = 1865
 Female 785 170 21.7 1.0 (Ref.) 272 50 18.4 1.0 (Ref.) 600 80 13.3 1.0 (Ref.) 240 25 10.4 1.0 (Ref.)
 Male 1154 364 31.5 1.7 (1.4–2.1)a 595 170 28.6 1.8 (1.3–2.5)b 2958 969 32.8 3.2 (2.5–4.1)a 1625 458 28.2 3.4 (2.2–5.2)a
Age (years) N = 1939 N = 867 N = 3558 N = 1865
 26–29 182 33 18.1 1.0 (Ref.) 88 14 15.9 1.0 (Ref.) 399 96 24.1 1.0 (Ref.) 217 27 12.4 1.0 (Ref.)
 30–39 453 103 22.7 1.4 (0.9–2.1) 207 37 17.9 1.2 (0.7–2.1) 945 225 23.8 0.99 (0.8–1.3) 541 136 25.1 2.4 (1.5–3.7)a
 40–49 523 154 29.4 1.9 (1.2–2.9)b 233 75 32.2 2.8 (1.7–4.6)a 886 256 28.9 1.3 (0.98–1.7) 433 125 28.9 2.9 (1.8–4.5)a
 50–59 521 174 33.4 2.3 (1.5–3.4)a 209 67 32.1 2.7 (1.6–4.4)a 845 304 36.0 1.8 (1.4–2.3)a 385 116 30.1 3.0 (1.9–4.8)a
 ≥60 260 70 26.9 1.7 (1.04–2.7)c 130 27 20.8 1.5 (0.8–2.7) 483 168 34.8 1.7 (1.3–2.3)a 289 79 27.3 2.7 (1.6–4.3)a
Age at smoking onset N = 1880 N = 867 N = 3557 N = 1840
 <14 44 20 45.5 3.4 (1.8–6.3)a 52 21 40.4 3.6 (1.9–6.7)a 288 151 52.4 3.9 (2.9–5.3)a 175 78 44.6 3.7 (2.5–5.6)a
 14–17 583 220 37.7 2.4 (1.8–3.3)a 266 98 36.8 2.8 (1.8–4.4)a 1291 420 32.5 1.7 (1.4–2.1)a 634 198 31.2 2.4 (1.7–3.3)a
 18–20 806 186 23.1 1.2 (0.9–1.6) 338 69 20.4 1.5 (0.95–2.3) 1229 313 25.5 1.2 (0.98–1.5) 678 147 21.7 1.5 (1.04–2.0)c
 ≥21 447 89 19.9 1.0 (Ref.) 211 32 15.2 1.0 (Ref.) 749 164 21.9 1.0 (Ref.) 353 57 16.1 1.0 (Ref.)
Education N = 1934 N = 860 N = 3556 N = 1861
 Primary 294 101 34.4 2.6 (1.7–4.1)a 58 19 32.8 2.3 (1.2–4.5)a 91 41 45.1 3.0 (1.9–4.7)a 122 48 39.3 4.4 (2.7–7.3)a
 Vocational 746 229 30.7 2.2 (1.5–3.3)a 200 53 26.5 1.7 (0.98–2.9) 1349 406 30.1 1.6 (1.3–1.93)a 802 181 22.6 2.0 (1.4–2.9)a
 Secondary 696 170 24.4 1.6 (1.1– 2.4)a 476 127 26.7 1.6 (0.97–2.5) 1228 412 33.6 1.9 (1.5– 2.3)a 649 215 33.1 3.4 (2.3–4.9)a
 High 198 33 16.7 1.0 (Ref.) 126 22 17.5 1.0 (Ref.) 888 190 21.4 1.0 (Ref.) 288 37 12.8 1.0 (Ref.)
Occupational classification N = 1939 N = 863 N = 3554 N = 1860
 Economically not active 587 168 28.6 1.1 (0.92– 1.4) 181 40 22.1 0.9 (0.7-1.3) 590 194 32.9 1.3 (1.1– 1.6)c 357 98 27.5 1.3 (1. 1–7)c
 Employed 1187 307 25.9 1.0 (Ref.) 561 136 24.2 1.0 (Ref.) 2611 720 27.6 1.0 (Ref.) 1185 265 22.4 1.0 (Ref.)
 Unemployed 165 59 35.8 1.6 (1.1–2.2)b 121 43 35.5 1.8 (1.2–2.8)b 353 134 38.0 1.6 (1.2–2.1)a 318 120 37.7 2.2 (1.6–2.8)a
Place of residence N = 1939 N = 867 N = 3558 N = 1865
 Rural 911 255 28.0 1.04 (0.9–1.3) 355 99 27.9 1.3 (0.96–1.7) 1676 555 33.1 1.4 (1.2–1.6)a 906 274 30.2 1.6 (1.3–1.9)a
 Urban 1028 279 27.1 1.0 (Ref.) 512 121 23.6 1.0 (Ref.) 1882 494 26.2 1.0 (Ref.) 959 209 21.8 1.0 (Ref.)
Asset Index N = 1922     N = 856     N = 3558     N = 1865    
 High 1495 390 26.1 1.0 (Ref.) 447 108 24.2 1.0 (Ref.) 1399 360 25.7 1.0 (Ref.) 755 160 21.2 1.0 (Ref.)
 Middle 377 116 30.8 1.3 (0.98–1.6) 293 78 26.6 1.1 (0.8–1.6) 1956 605 30.9 1.3 (1.1–1.5)b 884 243 27.5 1.4 (1.1–1.8)b
 Low 50 24 48.0 2.6 (1.5–4.6)a 116 36 31.0 1.6 (1.03–2.4)c 203 84 41.4 2.0 (1.5–2.8)a 226 80 35.4 2.0 (1.5–2.8)a
Rules regarding smoking at home N = 1934 N = 860 N = 3553 N = 1864
 Smoking is allowed 975 313 32.1 2.5 (1.8–3.6) a 446 138 30.9 1.9 (1.3–2.8)a 945 333 35.2 1.7 (1.4–2.1)a 344 119 34.6 2.1 (1.6–2.7)a
 Smoking is prohibited– with some exceptions 488 114 23.4 1.6 (1.1–2.4)c 162 26 16.0 0.9 (0.6–1.5) 1296 377 29.1 1.3 (1.1–1.6)b 604 169 28.0 1.5 (1.2–1.9)a
 Smoking is completely prohibited 270 43 15.9 1.0 (Ref.) 220 41 18.6 1.0 (Ref.) 1059 254 24.0 1.0 (Ref.) 847 173 20.4 1.0 (Ref.)
 No rules. 201 62 30.8 2.4 (1.5–3.7)a 32 15 46.9 4.4 (2.1–9.2)a 253 83 32.8 1.6 (1.2–2.1)b 69 22 31.9 1.8 (1.1–3.1)c
Awareness of smoking health consequences N = 1782 N = 861 N = 3417 N = 1753
 Yes 1566 399 25.5 1.0 (Ref) 812 202 24.9 1.0 (Ref.) 3013 883 29.3 1.0 (Ref.) 1596 394 24.7 1.0 (Ref.)
 No 216 76 35.2 1.6 (1.2–2.2)b 49 17 34.7 1.7 (0.9–3.0) 404 117 29.0 0.98 (0.8–1.2) 157 55 35.0 1.5 (1.1–2.0)b
Awareness of ETS health consequences N = 1624 N = 854 N = 3218 N = 1604
 Yes 1312 353 26.9 1.0 (Ref.) 784 188 24.0 1.0 (Ref.) 2544 722 28.4 1.0 (Ref.) 1402 332 23.7 1.0 (Ref.)
 No 312 91 29.2 1.1 (0.9–1.5) 70 25 35.7 1.9 (1.2–3.1)b 674 215 31.9 1.2 (0.98–1.4) 202 74 36.6 1.6 (1.2–2.0)a
Level of support for tobacco control N = 1476 N = 839 N = 3558 N = 1865
 High 829 202 24.4 1.0 (Ref.) 353 82 23.2 1.0 (Ref.) 1950 532 27.3 1.0 (Ref.) 936 220 23.5 1.0 (Ref.)
 Medium 416 137 32.9 1.5 (1.2–2.0)a 431 111 25.8 1.1 (0.8–1.5) 1314 403 30.7 1.2 (1.01–1.4)c 881 256 29.1 1.3 (1.1.–1.6)c
 Low 231 64 27.7 1.2 (0.9–1.7) 55 19 34.5 1.53 (0.9–2.7) 294 114 38.8 1.7 (1.3–2.2)a 48 7 14.6 0.6 (0.3–1.3)
  1. ap ≤ 0.001
  2. bp ≤ 0.01
  3. cp ≤ 0.05
  4. N- total number of daily smokers
  5. n - daily smokers highly dependent on nicotine (Heaviness of Smoking Index: score 4–6)
  6. OR- odds ratio for high nicotine dependence by selected characteristics
  7. 95 % CI-95 % confidence interval
  8. Ref. – reference group