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Table 1 Characteristics of white participants in the NHIS study (1977-2009)

From: Differential increase in prevalence estimates of inadequate sleep among black and white Americans

Characteristics 1977 1983 1985 1990 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
N 16,429 8,576 23,756 29,028 19,357 19,510 14,089 13,720 12,814 16,281
Gender, Female (%) 54.2 55.8 51.3 51.2 49.9 49.9 49.5 49.3 49.5 49.8
Age, years (mean ± SD) 42 ± 15 40 ± 15 40 ± 17 41 ± 17 42 ± 17 42 ± 17 42 ± 17 43 ± 18 43 ± 18 43 ± 19
Education, ≥ HS (%) 73.0 78.6 81.2 83.5 88.1 88.3 87.7 88.7 88.5 88.8
Marital status (%)           
 Married 74.5 69.6 69.5 69.6 62.1 61.8 60.9 59.9 59.3 57.9
 Widowed, Divorced & Separated 12.3 13.0 11.7 12.6 15.2 15.3 15.7 15.5 16.1 16.4
 Single 13.2 17.4 18.8 17.8 22.7 22.9 23.4 24.6 24.6 25.7
Total family income, ≥ 35K (%) -- 23.7 32.0 48.3 66.6 67.8 67.9 71.5 72.9 72.5
Poverty status, below (%) -- 6.6 8.8 7.3 9.1 9.0 10.2 9.5 10.3 10.8
Ever smoked, yes (%) 58.8 56.3 56.5 52.5 44.2 44.3 44.0 43.7 44.2 44.6
Alcohol consumption           
 Never drinkers -- -- -- 13.0 19.6 19.0 19.6 18.3 16.3 15.3
 Former drinkers -- -- -- 9.0 13.2 12.8 12.9 13.1 12.4 13.1
 Current drinkers -- -- -- 78.0 67.2 68.2 67.5 68.6 71.2 71.5
Body mass index (mean ± SD) 24.3 ± 4.3 24.4 ± 4.5 24.6 ± 5.1 25.0 ± 5.1 26.6 ± 5.6 26.8 ± 5.7 27.1 ± 6.4 27.0 ± 6.3 27.3 ± 6.4 27.3 ± 6.8
Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) 9.1 10.3 10.8 12.9 22.9 23.9 25.7 25.5 26.8 26.8
Physical activity, yes (%) -- -- -- -- 10.9 11.4 11.2 11.3 11.5 12.5
Emotional stress, yes (%) -- -- -- -- 3.3 3.0 3.1 2.7 3.6 3.5
Comorbid conditions:           
Diabetes -- 3.4 -- -- 5.9 6.5 6.6 6.2 7.1 7.9
Hypertension -- 20.7 21.4 19.9 20.3 20.4 22.3 22.0 23.9 23.4
Cancer -- 3.2 -- -- 5.5 6.1 5.8 6.1 6.6 6.8
Coronary heart disease -- 1.8 -- -- 2.7 3.1 2.9 2.9 2.7 3.2
Heart attack (MI) -- -- -- -- 2.2 2.4 2.3 2.1 2.5 2.3
Stroke -- 0.9 1.2 1.2 1.5 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.8 1.6
Kidney disease -- -- -- -- 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.2 1.4
Sleep measures:           
Hours of sleep (mean ± SD) 7.4 ± 1.2 7.3 ± 1.2 7.4 ± 1.4 7.3 ± 1.4 7.1 ± 1.4 7.1 ± 1.5 7.1 ± 1.3 7.1 ± 1.4 7.1 ± 1.5 7.1 ± 1.7
Categories of sleep quantity           
 Very short sleep 1.5 1.7 1.1 1.4 2.0 2.1 2.1 1.8 2.3 2.3
 Short sleep 19.3 20.1 20.2 22.3 26.0 26.0 26.2 24.7 25.6 25.4
 Normal sleep 68.0 69.0 68.7 68.2 64.9 64.9 64.9 66.9 64.9 64.5
 Long sleep 11.2 9.1 10.0 8.1 7.0 7.0 6.8 6.6 7.2 7.8
  1. Legend: Note that several health factors were not collected prior to 2004