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Table 2 Univariable and multivariable-adjusted analysis of factors associated with current pregnancy reported being unintended among pregnant and postpartum adult women enrolled in a prospective observational cohort study in Botswana, 2010-2012

From: Unintended pregnancy, contraceptive use, and childbearing desires among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women in Botswana: across-sectional study

  Current pregnancy unintended Univariable Models Full Multivariable Model
  N (%)a OR (95 % CI) P* OR (95 % CI) P*
Exposure of interest         
Maternal knowledge of HIV status prior to becoming pregnant      0.01    0.02
 Known to be HIV-uninfected 168 (40 %) 1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
 HIV status unknown 107 (26 %) 1.77 (1.27, 2.47)   1.71 (1.18, 2.47)  
 Known to be HIV-infected 141 (34 %) 1.60 (1.18, 2.16)   1.30 (0.91, 1.86)  
Demographics         
Location      0.80    0.89
 Mochudi 172 (41 %) 0.97 (0.74, 1.26)   0.98 (0.71, 1.35)  
 Gaborone 244 (59 %) 1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
Age, in years      0.07    0.02
 18 to 24 years 146 (35 %) 1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
 25 to 29 years 104 (25 %) 0.79 (0.65, 1.09)   0.62 (0.41, 0.94)  
 30 to 34 years 88 (21 %) 0.82 (0.58, 1.17)   0.43 (0.26, 0.70)  
 25 to 39 years 56 (13 %) 1.35 (0.87, 2.11)   0.57 (0.31, 1.06)  
 40 years and older 22 (5 %) 1.45 (0.75, 2.80)   0.42 (0.18, 1.00)  
Relationship status      <0.0001    <0.0001
 Married 25 (6 %) 0.76 (0.45, 1.27)   0.71 (0.39, 1.28)  
 Not in a serious relationship 48 (12 %) 6.57 (3.26, 13.24)   7.18 (3.31, 15.59)  
 Not married, but living together 101 (24 %) 1.00 (0.74, 1.36)   0.90 (0.63, 1.28)  
 Not married and not living together 242 (58 %) 1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
Socioeconomic factors         
Education      0.0002    0.22
 None or primary 60 (14 %) 1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
 Junior secondary 196 (47 %) 0.44 (0.28, 0.70)   0.60 (0.35, 1.01)  
 Senior secondary 116 (28 %) 0.42 (0.26, 0.68)   0.72 (0.40, 1.31)  
 Tertiary 43 (10 %) 0.30 (0.17, 0.53)   0.61 (0.31, 1.21)  
Employment      0.004    0.003
 Employed 168 (40 %) 1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
 Unemployed and looking for work 132 (32 %) 1.58 (1.15, 2.17)   1.02 (0.58, 1.79)  
 Unemployed but not looking for work 116 (28 %) 0.93 (0.68, 1.27)   0.54 (0.31, 0.95)  
Incomeb      0.15    0.24
 None 264 (63 %) 1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
 <$57 per month 27 (6 %) 1.37 (0.77, 2.45)   0.81 (0.39, 1.67)  
 >$113 per month 58 (14 %) 0.75 (0.53, 1.07)   0.72 (0.39, 1.32)  
 $57 to $113 per month 67 (16 %) 0.79 (0.55, 1.14)   0.52 (0.27, 0.99)  
Household size      0.02    0.05
 0 to 4 people 101 (24 %) 1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
 5 to 6 people 92 (22 %) 1.47 (1.02, 2.13)   1.59 (1.07, 2.36)  
 7 to 9 people 102 (25 %) 1.55 (1.08, 2.22)   1.62 (1.07, 2.45)  
 10 or more people 119 (29 %) 1.69 (1.19, 2.40)   1.52 (1.02, 2.29)  
Television or car in the household         
 No 159 (39 %) 0.68 (0.52, 0.90) 0.01 0.85 (0.63, 1.16) 0.31
 Yes 253 (61 %) 1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
Reproductive history         
Total number of prior pregnancies including current pregnancy      <0.0001    <0.0001
 1 110 (26 %) 1 (ref)   1 (ref)  
 2 103 (25 %) 1.00 (0.71, 1.40)   1.56 (1.04, 2.34)  
 3 91 (22 %) 1.83 (1.25, 2.68)   3.45 (2.07, 5.75)  
 4 or more 112 (27 %) 2.40 (1.65, 3.48)   4.76 (2.62, 8.65)  
Any child died before age 5 years 41 (10 %) 0.99 (0.65, 1.53) 0.97 0.57 (0.34, 0.94) 0.03
  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. *Global Wald χ2 P-values
  3. aColumn percentage (values may not sum to 100 % due to rounding)
  4. bBotswana pula were converted to US dollars based on a rate of 8.87 pula per US$1