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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of N = 941 pregnant and postpartum adult women enrolled in a prospective observational cohort study in Botswana, 2010–2012 overall and according to knowledge of HIV status prior to becoming pregnant

From: Unintended pregnancy, contraceptive use, and childbearing desires among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women in Botswana: across-sectional study

   Maternal knowledge of HIV serostatus prior to becoming pregnant  
Characteristic (total n with data) Total (N = 941) Knew she was HIV-infected (N = 288)a Knew she was HIV-uninfected (N = 446)a Did not know her HIV status (N = 207) P*
Demographics      
Location (n = 941)      0.16
 Mochudi 394 (42 %) 117 (41 %) 200 (45 %) 77 (37 %)  
 Gaborone 547 (58 %) 171 (59 %) 246 (55 %) 130 (63 %)  
Age, in years (n = 941)      <0.0001
 18 to 24 years 319 (34 %) 46 (16 %) 169 (38 %) 104 (50 %)  
 25 to 29 years 261 (28 %) 69 (24 %) 143 (32 %) 49 (24 %)  
 30 to 34 years 216 (23 %) 98 (34 %) 87 (20 %) 31 (15 %)  
 25 to 39 years 105 (11 %) 56 (19 %) 33 (7 %) 16 (8 %)  
 40 years and older 40 (4 %) 19 (7 %) 14 (3 %) 7 (3 %)  
 Median (IQR)b 27 (23, 32) 30 (26, 34) 26 (22, 30) 24 (21, 30) <0.0001**
Relationship status (n = 941)      0.10
 Married 70 (7 %) 24 (8 %) 35 (8 %) 11 (5 %)  
 Not married, but living together 239 (25 %) 75 (26 %) 116 (26 %) 48 (23 %)  
 Not married and not living together 574 (61 %) 167 (58 %) 278 (62 %) 129 (62 %)  
 Not in a serious relationship 58 (6 %) 22 (8 %) 17 (4 %) 19 (9 %)  
Maternal HIV serostatus at enrolment (n = 941)      <0.0001
 HIV-uninfected 473 (50 %) 9 (3 %) 377 (85 %) 87 (42 %)  
 HIV-infected 468 (50 %) 279 (97 %) 69 (15 %) 120 (58 %)  
Socioeconomic factors      
Education (n = 939)      <0.0001
 None or primary 94 (10 %) 49 (17 %) 24 (5 %) 21 (10 %)  
 Junior secondary 449 (48 %) 176 (61 %) 178 (40 %) 95 (46 %)  
 Senior secondary 272 (29 %) 43 (15 %) 162 (36 %) 67 (32 %)  
 Tertiary 124 (13 %) 19 (7 %) 81 (18 %) 24 (12 %)  
Employment (n = 939)      0.20
 Employed 401 (43 %) 130 (45 %) 188 (42 %) 83 (40 %)  
 Unemployed and looking for work 248 (26 %) 80 (28 %) 121 (27 %) 47 (23 %)  
 Unemployed but not looking for workc 290 (31 %) 77 (27 %) 137 (31 %) 76 (37 %)  
Income (n = 939)d      <0.0001
 None 574 (61 %) 161 (56 %) 289 (65 %) 124 (60 %)  
 <$57 per month 50 (5 %) 28 (10 %) 13 (3 %) 9 (4 %)  
 $57 to $113 per month 144 (15 %) 53 (19 %) 48 (11 %) 43 (21 %)  
 >$113 per month 171 (18 %) 44 (15 %) 96 (22 %) 31 (15 %)  
Household size (n = 938)      0.04
 0 to 4 people 277 (30 %) 83 (29 %) 139 (31 %) 55 (27 %)  
 5 to 6 people 201 (21 %) 54 (19 %) 107 (24 %) 40 (19 %)  
 7 to 9 people 218 (23 %) 80 (28 %) 95 (21 %) 43 (21 %)  
 10 or more people 242 (26 %) 70 (24 %) 104 (23 %) 68 (33 %)  
 Television or car in the household (n = 935) 619 (66 %) 168 (59 %) 325 (73 %) 126 (61 %) 0.0001
Reproductive history      
Total number of prior pregnancies including current pregnancy (n = 941)      <0.0001
 1 296 (31 %) 34 (12 %) 165 (37 %) 97 (47 %)  
 2 279 (30 %) 77 (27 %) 159 (36 %) 43 (21 %)  
 3 175 (19 %) 74 (26 %) 62 (14 %) 39 (19 %)  
 4 or more 191 (20 %) 103 (36 %) 60 (13 %) 28 (14 %)  
 Median (IQR)b 2 (1 – 3) 3 (2 – 4) 2 (1 – 3) 2 (1 – 3) <0.0001**
Any child died before age 5 years (n = 941) 93 (10 %) 51 (18 %) 26 (6 %) 16 (8 %) <0.0001
Current pregnancy unintended (n = 940) 416 (44 %) 141 (49 %) 168 (38 %) 107 (52 %) 0.001
Contraception use prior to current pregnancy among women with unintended pregnancy (n = 416)      0.54
 Was using contraception 268 (64 %) 93 (66 %) 103 (61 %) 72 (67 %)  
 Was not using contraception 148 (36 %) 48 (35 %) 65 (39 %) 35 (33 %)  
Type of contraception used (n = 269)      0.41
 Oral contraceptive pills 36 (13 %) 16 (17 %) 11 (11 %) 9 (13 %)  
 Injectable contraception 14 (5 %) 4 (4 %) 8 (8 %) 2 (3 %)  
 Condoms 219 (81 %) 74 (79 %) 84 (82 %) 61 (85 %)  
 Intrauterine device, diaphragm or other 0 (0 %) 0 (0 %) 0 (0 %) 0 (0 %)  
Future desire for children (n = 941)      <0.0001
 No 577 (61 %) 223 (77 %) 225 (50 %) 129 (62 %)  
 Yes 229 (24 %) 34 (12 %) 155 (35 %) 40 (19 %)  
 Do not know 135 (14 %) 31 (11 %) 66 (15 %) 38 (18 %)  
  1. IQR interquartile range
  2. *Wald χ2P-values unless otherwise noted
  3. **Wilcoxon rank sum P-values
  4. aData are n (column %) unless otherwise noted. Values may not total to 100 % due to rounding
  5. b25th and 75th percentiles
  6. cUnemployed includes participants reporting housewife as primary occupation
  7. dBotswana pula were converted to US dollars based on a rate of 8.87 pula per US$1