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Table 1 Categories and risk factors for structural interventions for intimate partner violence

From: Systematic review of structural interventions for intimate partner violence in low- and middle-income countries: organizing evidence for prevention

Category Risk factor Potential structural interventions
Economic Poverty [47] Microfinance programs for women [37]
Limited economic opportunity [48]
Interpersonal (dyadic) economic inequality [49]: male control of family finances or wealth, women's economic dependence, and male unemployment with female employment [47] Unconditional and conditional cash transfer programs [29]
Physical Isolation of women to private spaces and limited public roles for women [49] Community meeting spaces for women and girls [50]
Limitations on alcohol outlet density [5153]
Alcohol outlet density [5153]
Politico-Legal Legislation and practices that reinforce female subordination and discrimination (e.g., dowry, child marriage, restricted property rights) [5457] Legislation to facilitate women’s access to divorce [49]
Legislation to protect survivors and prosecute perpetrators [49]
Training for and monitoring of criminal justice and legal professionals on IPV-related policies and legislation [49]
Limited sensitivity and awareness among service providers, law enforcement, and judicial actors [49, 58, 59]
Limited legal support for women and survivors of violence [49]
Social Social isolation [47] and limited freedom of movement Social empowerment through community activities [49]
Low educational level [60] of women [49]
Gender norms supporting male dominance [49]: existence or transgression of rigid gender roles [47, 49] Educational entertainment media [41, 49]
Community acceptance of interpersonal violence [47, 62] Transformation of gender norms among men [61]