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Table 3 Results of the negative binomial regression analyses for the risk of losing teeth (n = 1694). Unadjusted and adjusteda relative risks (RR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI)

From: Association between smoking intensity and duration and tooth loss among Finnish middle-aged adults: The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 Project

  Unadjusted RR (95 % CI) Adjusted RR (95 % CI)
Gender   
 Male 1.16 (1.01–1.34) 0.96 (0.83–1.11)
 Female (reference) 1.00 1.00
Education   
 Basic 2.11 (1.56–2.84) 1.81 (1.34–2.46)
 Secondary 1.67 (1.45–1.93) 1.48 (1.27–1.72)
 Higher (reference) 1.00 1.00
Tooth brushing   
 Once daily or less 1.38 (1.19–1.59) 1.19 (1.02–1.39)
 At least twice daily (reference) 1.00 1.00
Plaque   
 Yes 1.06 (0.89–1.26) 0.97 (0.82–1.15)
 No (reference) 1.00 1.00
Diabetes   
 Yes 1.50 (0.97–2.33) 1.40 (0.92–2.15)
 No (reference) 1.00 1.00
Smoking   
 0–10 pack-years 1.50 (1.06–2.13) 1.39 (0.99–1.97)
 11–20 pack-years 1.85 (1.38–2.49) 1.55 (1.15–2.08)
 21 or more pack-years 2.18 (1.67–2.85) 1.78 (1.36–2.33)
 Former smoker 1.25 (1.06–1.48) 1.13 (0.96–1.34)
 Occasional smoker 1.08 (0.83–1.41) 0.98 (0.75–1.28)
 Never smoker (reference) 1.00 1.00
 1–20 years of smoking 1.62 (1.15–2.28) 1.40 (0.99–1.96)
 21–30 years of smoking 2.00 (1.57–2.55) 1.66 (1.29–2.12)
 31 or more years of smoking 2.00 (1.40–2.86) 1.72 (1.20–2.45)
 Never smoker (reference) 1.00 1.00
Alcohol use, g/wk   
 Alcohol drinker 1.25 (1.01–1.55) 1.09 (0.88–1.36)
 Light drinker (reference) 1.00 1.00
  1. aAdjusted for other background factors in this table. In addition, other than smoking variables were adjusted for smoking (pack-years)