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Table 1 Characteristics of mothers at recruitment (baseline measurement) and characteristics of infants at delivery and 6 weeks in Ha Nam province, Vietnam (n = 1049)

From: Exclusive breast feeding in early infancy reduces the risk of inpatient admission for diarrhea and suspected pneumonia in rural Vietnam: a prospective cohort study

  Total study population  
Maternal characteristic Frequency, Mean or Median (Percentage) [Standard deviation] or {25th – 75th percentile}
Maternal age at enrolment (years) 26.7 [4.9]
<20 41 (3.9)
20–24 340 (32.4)
25–29 426 (40.6)
30–34 161 (15.4)
≥35 81 (7.7)
Maternal height 153.6 [4.7]
<145 cm (short maternal stature) 38 (3.6)
Maternal body mass index 19.9 [1.98]
Underweight (<18.5 kg/m2) 272 (26.0)
Normal (18.5-25 kg/m2) 761 (72.6)
Overweight (>25 kg/m2) 15 (1.4)
Educational level   
Primary school 160 (15.3)
Secondary school 705 (67.2)
University/college 184 (17.5)
Occupation   
Farmer/housewife 561 (53.5)
Factory worker/trader 350 (33.4)
Government official/clerk 138 (13.2)
Main energy source   
Gas 849 (79.9)
Firewood/Straw/Hay 163 (15.4)
Charcoal/coal 30 (2.8)
Electric 20 (1.9)
Type of toilet   
Flush toilet/septic tank 716 (67.4)
Compartment latrine 173 (16.3)
Pit latrine 155 (14.6)
None 18 (1.7)
Main water source   
Rain water 917 (86.4)
Tap/piped water’ 87 (8.2)
Well water/river water 56 (5.3)
Gravidity   
Primigravida 328 (31.3)
Multigravida 721 (68.7)
Supplements taken during trial intervention   
Daily IFA supplements 351 (33.5)
Twice weekly IFA supplements 363 (34.6)
MMN supplements 335 (31.9)
Micronutrient status in late pregnancy   
Haemoglobin (g/dL) 12.3 [1.23]
Ferritin (ug/L) 28 {17 to 42}
B12 (pmol/L) 232 {99 to 601}
Folate (nmol/L) 28.7 {6.8 to 90}
Iodine (ug/L) 52.9 {3.3 to 307.4}
Infant characteristics   
Sex   
Male 558 (53.2)
Birthweight (grams) 3157.6 [396.6]
Low birth weight (<2500 gms) 32 (3.1)
Gestational age (weeks) 39.1 [2.0]
Preterm (<37 weeks) 166 (15.8)
Exclusive breast feeding at 6 weeks of age 377 (33.3)
Use of dietary supplements for the child in the first 6 months 117 (11.2)