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Table 1 Description of characteristics for the whole Paquid cohort and the three classes of subjects defined by the joint latent class analysis

From: Social activity, cognitive decline and dementia risk: a 20-year prospective cohort study

  Non-decliners   Moderate decliners   Fast decliners   All   
  (N = 1997) (N = 611) (N = 246) (N = 2854)  
  N % N % N % N % P*
Demographics          
Sex (male) 857 43 235 38 90 37 1182 41 0.65
Education          0.06
 Low 650 33 180 29 79 32 909 32  
 Medium 1112 56 377 62 145 59 1634 57  
 High 235 12 54 9 22 9 311 11  
Marital status          0.11
 Married 1160 58 355 58 148 60 1663 58  
 Divorced/Separated 692 35 202 33 78 32 972 34  
 Widowed 87 4 31 5 18 7 136 5  
 Single 58 3 23 4 2 1 83 3  
Social activity          
Social engagement          0.11
 Low 593 30 208 34 89 36 890 31  
 Medium 940 47 275 45 104 42 1319 46  
 High social 464 23 128 21 53 22 645 23  
Large social network 966 48 298 49 113 46 1377 48 0.91
Satisfied with social relations 331 17 128 21 58 24 517 18 0.47
Feel understood by others 1592 80 456 75 179 73 2227 78 0.49
Dementia and death          
Dementia diagnosisa 157 8 423 69 203 83 783 27 <0.001
Deathsa 1488 75 485 79 227 92 2200 77 <0.001
Health variables          
Ischemic heart disease 421 21 127 21 39 16 587 21 0.59
Stroke 80 4 36 6 24 10 140 5 0.22
Diabetes 155 8 48 8 26 11 229 8 0.69
Depression 203 10 94 15 51 21 348 12 0.10
IADLs 484 24 164 27 86 35 734 26 0.21
  Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD P
Demographics          
Age (years) 77.2 7.1 77.1 6.0 74.3 4.8 77.0 6.8 <0.001
Cognitive test data          
 MMSE 26.8 2.7 25.1 4.5 23.4 6.8 26.2 3.9 <0.001
 BVRT 11.0 2.4 10.0 2.7 9.9 3.1 10.7 2.6 <0.001
 DSST 29.8 12.0 24.7 11.4 24.3 11.9 28.4 12.1 <0.001
 IST 28.5 6.0 25.8 6.7 23.9 7.1 27.8 6.4 <0.001
 WPA 4.2 1.6 3.7 1.6 3.7 1.7 4.0 1.6 <0.001
 SIM 6.8 2.9 5.7 3.1 5.5 3.3 6.5 3.0 <0.001
  1. MMSE Mini-mental state examination, BVRT Benton Visual Retention Task, DST Digit Symbol Substitution Test, IST Isaac’s Set Test, WPA Wechsler Paired Associates, SIM Similarities, IADLs Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, SD standard deviation. All variables were assessed at the study baseline with the exception of dementia diagnosis and death
  2. *P-value for the chi-squared test for independence between education, sex, engagement/perception variables, and additional covariates in the three latent classes
  3. ANOVA P-value for differences in continuous traits in the three latent classes
  4. aDementia diagnosis and survival were assessed during the study follow-up
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