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Table 2 Association between mother’s education status and initiation of breastfeeding within one hour after birth. Hierarchical modelling by using logistic regression analysis (pooled data, NDHS 2011, NDHS 2006 and NDHS 2001)

From: The effect of mother’s educational status on early initiation of breastfeeding: further analysis of three consecutive Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys

  Unadjusted from pooled analysis Pooled Modela 2011b 2006c 2001d
Characteristics OR (95 % CI) P-value OR (95 % CI) P-value OR (95 % CI) P-value OR (95 % CI) P-value OR (95 % CI) P-value
Mother’s education                     
 No education 1.00     1.00     1.00     1.00     1.00    
 Primary 1.36 (1.20 1.54) 0.000 1.24 (1.09 1.42) 0.002 1.52 (1.21 1.91) 0.000 1.24 (0.96 1.60) 0.093 1.07 (0.87 1.32) 0.506
 Above secondary 2.03 (1.79 2.30) 0.000 1.63 (1.42 1.88) 0.000 2.20 (1.76 2.76) 0.000 1.66 (1.30 2.12) 0.000 1.30 (1.00 1.70) 0.052
Place of residence                     
 Urban 1.00                 1.00    
 Rural 0.80 (0.70 0.92) 0.002              0.74 (0.58 0.93) 0.012
Ecological zone                     
 Mountain 1.00                 1.00    
 Hill 1.12 (0.96 1.30) 0.149              1.25 (1.02 1.53) 0.030
 Terai 0.85 (0.71 1.01) 0.062              0.74 0.58 0.94) 0.013
Development region                     
 Eastern 1.00     1.00     1.00     1.00     1.00    
 Central 0.65 (0.55 0.76) 0.000 0.72 (0.62 0.83) 0.000 0.65 (0.47 0.91) 0.012 1.12 (0.90 1.40) 0.317 0.42 (0.34 0.53) 0.000
 Western 1.13 (0.94 1.37) 0.202 1.11 (0.93 1.33) 0.262 1.01 (0.73 1.40) 0.958 1.14 (0.81 1.60) 0.456 1.14 (0.83 1.56) 0.428
 Mid-western 1.68 (1.39 2.03) 0.000 1.98 (1.63 2.41) 0.000 1.03 (0.75 1.42) 0.852 1.24 (0.90 1.71) 0.188 4.42 (3.10 6.29) 0.000
 Far-western 1.65 (1.27 2.13) 0.000 1.92 (1.49 2.48) 0.000 1.53 (1.09 2.15) 0.014 1.97 (1.25 3.10) 0.004 2.14 (1.64 2.79) 0.000
Ethnicity                     
 Advantaged 1.00     1.00         1.00     1.00    
 Relatively disadvantaged 0.83 (0.72 0.96) 0.011 1.21 (1.04 1.41) 0.013      1.71 (1.29 2.26) 0.000 1.12 (0.87 1.45) 0.366
 Disadvantaged 0.67 (0.57 0.78) 0.000 0.94 (0.80 1.10) 0.435      1.20 (0.89 1.61) 0.224 0.86 (0.69 1.07) 0.168
 Madheshi and others 0.33 (0.26 0.42) 0.000 0.60 (0.47 0.76) 0.000      0.99 (0.68 1.44) 0.963 0.49 (0.28 0.83) 0.009
Wealth quintile                     
 Poorest 1.00     1.00         1.00     1.00    
 Poorer 1.16 (1.01 1.34) 0.036 1.21 (1.04 1.41) 0.015      1.42 (1.09 1.86) 0.010 0.96 (0.77 1.21) 0.746
 Middle 1.25 (1.07 1.47) 0.006 1.27 (1.08 1.50) 0.003      1.18 (0.90 1.57) 0.231 1.11 (0.86 1.43) 0.432
 Richer 1.26 (1.06 1.50) 0.008 1.24 (1.04 1.48) 0.019      1.21 (0.86 1.70) 0.265 0.95 (0.73 1.25) 0.730
 Richest 1.42 (1.21 1.68) 0.000 1.24 (1.04 1.47) 0.017      1.45 (1.06 1.99) 0.022 1.03 (0.78 1.35) 0.845
ANC visit                     
 No visits 1.00     1.00         1.00     1.00    
 1–3 visits 1.11 (0.97 1.26) 0.122 1.07 (0.94 1.21) 0.302      1.36 (1.10 1.67) 0.004 0.95 (0.82 1.11) 0.530
 4 or more 1.84 (1.58 2.14) 0.000 1.32 (1.12 1.56) 0.001      1.40 (1.04 1.89) 0.026 1.38 (1.07 1.78) 0.014
Birth order                     
 First 1.00     1.00     1.00         1.00    
 Second 1.12 (0.99 1.26) 0.061 1.30 (1.15 1.47) 0.000 1.43 (1.15 1.78) 0.002      1.53 (1.23 1.91) 0.000
 Third or more 0.81 (0.72 0.90) 0.000 1.22 (1.08 1.38) 0.001 1.29 (1.02 1.63) 0.036      1.35 (1.14 1.61) 0.001
Size at birth                     
 Small 1.00             1.00        
 Average 1.00 (0.89 1.12) 0.998          0.97 (0.77 1.21) 0.757     
 Larger 1.19 (1.03 1.38) 0.017          1.33 (1.03 1.71) 0.027     
 Multiple births 0.45 (0.25 0.81) 0.007 0.42 (0.23 0.76) 0.004 0.26 (0.08 0.81) 0.021 0.38 (0.13 1.11) 0.078     
Place of delivery                     
 Home 1.00     1.00     1.00         1.00    
 Health facility 1.79 (1.58 2.02) 0.000 1.73 (1.50 2.01) 0.000 2.09 (1.74 2.50) 0.000      1.39 (1.06 1.82) 0.018
 Other place 0.74 (0.54 1.02) 0.062 0.67 (0.47 0.94) 0.022 0.62 (0.33 1.16) 0.133      0.42 (0.23 0.77) 0.005
Mode of delivery                     
 Vaginal 1.00     1.00     1.00     1.00     1.00    
 Caesarian 0.49 (0.36 0.67) 0.000 0.27 (0.19 0.38) 0.000 0.24 (0.16 0.36) 0.000 0.24 (0.12 0.48) 0.000 0.40 (0.16 0.99) 0.047
  1. OR odds ratio; CI confidence interval
  2. a Adjusted for- Mother’s education, Development region, Ethnicity, Wealth quintile, ANC visit, Birth order, Multiple births, Place of delivery and Mode of delivery
  3. b Adjusted for-Mother’s education, Development region, Birth order, Multiple births, Place of delivery and Mode of delivery
  4. c adjusted for -Mother’s education, Development region, Ethnicity, Wealth quintile, ANC visits, Size at birth, Multiple births, Mode of delivery
  5. d adjusted for-Mother’s education, Place of residence, Ecological zone, Development region, Ethnicity, Wealth quintile, ANC visit, Birth order, Place of delivery and Mode of delivery
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