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Table 1 Percentage of newborn babies breastfed within the first hour of birth according to the background characteristics. Children born within 5 years before the surveys NDHS 2001, 2006 and 2011

From: The effect of mother’s educational status on early initiation of breastfeeding: further analysis of three consecutive Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys

Characteristics Totala Pooled (n = 12,845) NDHS 2011(n = 4116) NDHS 2006(n = 4051) NDHS 2001(n = 4678)  
  % (n) % early breastfed % early breastfed % early breastfed % early breastfed
Survey year       
 2001 36.42 4678 31.27    
 2006 31.54 4051 35.26    
 2011 32.05 4116 44.49    
Mother’s education       
 No education 58.68 7537 31.55 34.42 31.54 30.04
 Primary 17.5 2248 38.54 45.1 37.38 31.69
 Secondary/higher 23.82 3060 48.29 56.33 42.73 37.57
Place of residence       
 Urban 9.89 1270 41.44 48.42 39.44 35.89
 Rural 90.11 11,575 36.25 44.05 34.63 30.92
Ecological zone       
 Mountain 7.79 1001 37.62 47.82 31.26 35.01
 Hill 41.2 5292 40.29 46.91 32.65 41.24
 Terai 51.01 6552 33.78 42.16 38.08 22.44
Development region       
 Eastern 22.97 2950 36 48.28 32.84 27.35
 Central 31.93 4101 26.65 34.86 33.6 13.6
Western 19.29 2478 38.88 49.08 35.61 32.38
 Mid-western 13.98 1796 48.62 45 32.38 63.85
 Far-western 11.83 1520 48.08 54.73 44.7 46.23
Mother’s occupation       
 Not working 20.84 2677 35.35 42.59 38.07 21.65
 Agriculture 75.33 9676 36.88 44.61 34.15 33.25
 Paid Jobs 3.83 492 42.29 58.85 41.87 30.91
Father’s education       
 No education 26.74 3435 29.23 31.27 32.83 26.05
 Primary 25.69 3300 34.99 41.1 33.01 31.81
 Above secondary 46.41 5961 42.34 51.09 37.94 36.02
 Don’t know 1.16 149 26.49 34.21 25.9 24.96
Ethnicity       
 Advantaged 29.99 3852 43.24 51.18 33.21 44.92
 Relatively disadvantaged 41.07 5275 38.71 45.32 40.87 30.57
 Disadvantaged 15.52 1994 33.65 38.77 31.4 30.71
 Madheshi and others 13.42 1724 19.95 29.85 27.03 9.41
Wealth quintile       
 Poorest 20.91 2686 32.44 38.12 29.73 28.52
 Poorer 20.55 2640 35.86 40.32 37.59 29.6
 Middle 19.41 2493 37.57 43.05 34.68 34.71
 Richer 19.63 2521 37.71 50.88 34.98 30.24
 Richest 19.49 2503 40.61 54.47 41.1 32.76
Age of mother       
 14–19 years 7.96 1022 36.06 45.26 39.54 24.65
 20–34 years 61.29 7873 38.26 46.84 35.66 32.39
 35–49 years 30.75 3950 33.97 39.03 33.16 30.9
ANC visit       
 No Visits 31.71 4053 31.59 33.51 28.49 32.47
 1–3 visits 37.71 4820 33.87 38.36 36.36 27.21
 4 or more 30.59 3910 45.92 52.33 40.04 36.64
Sex of child       
 Male 51.79 6652 37.03 44.98 35.39 31.11
 Female 48.21 6193 36.48 43.94 35.12 31.42
Birth order of child       
 First 26.01 3341 38.46 47.12 37.65 27.81
 Second 25.8 3314 41.14 50.11 37.93 34.74
 Third or more 48.19 6190 33.51 38.63 32.25 31.15
Multiple birth       
 Single birth 98.8 12,691 36.96 44.82 35.53 31.31
 Multiple births 1.2 154 20.95 21.63 18.14 25.31
Size at birth       
 Very small/small 59.51 7644 35.84 43.96 33.79 29.23
 Average 18.62 2392 35.84 42.67 31.64 34.63
 Larger 21.81 2801 40.03 47.82 41.81 33.04
Place of delivery       
 Home 76.35 9807 33.82 37.97 34.2 31.05
 Health facility 21.97 2822 47.72 55.11 39.68 35.45
 Others 1.67 215 27.37 31.02 33.6 21.44
Mode of delivery       
 Vaginal 96.93 12,451 37.22 45.46 35.87 31.4
 Caesarean 3.07 394 22.56 27.04 16.14 19.42
  1. anumbers and percentages after adjusting for sample weight and cluster sampling design
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