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Table 3 Determinants of use of multivitamins among of 10–11-year-old students in Alberta, Canadaa

From: The prevalence and determinants of use of vitamin D supplements among children in Alberta, Canada: a cross-sectional study

  Univariable model Parsimonious modelb
Odds ratio (95 % CI) Odds ratio (95 % CI)
Demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric factors
Gender
 Girls 1.00 1.00
 Boys 0.91 (0.75, 1.10) 0.85 (0.70, 1.03)
Parental education
 Secondary or less 1.00 1.00
 College 1.26 (1.02, 1.55)* 1.25 (1.02, 1.54)*
 University or graduate 1.34 (1.07, 1.69)* 1.33 (1.06, 1.68)*
Household incomec
 ≤$50,000 1.00 1.00
 $50,001–100,000 1.48 (1.10, 2.00)** 1.43 (1.05, 1.94)*
 ≥$100,001 1.44 (1.09, 1.91)** 1.29 (0.97, 1.71)
Region of residence
 Rural 1.00 1.00
 Urban 1.06 (0.81, 1.40) 1.06 (0.81 1.39)
 Metropolitan 0.92 (0.73, 1.17) 0.95 (0.76, 1.19)
Weight status
 Under/normal weight 1.00 1.00
 Overweight 0.84 (0.67, 1.05) 0.88 (0.70, 1.09)
 Obese 0.70 (0.50, 0.98)* 0.76 (0.54, 1.08)
Lifestyle factors
Physical activity level
 1st Tertile 1.00 1.00
 2nd Tertile 1.21 (0.99, 1.47) 1.20 (0.97, 1.47)
 3rd Tertile 1.55 (1.26, 1.90)*** 1.56 (1.27, 1.91)***
Energy-adjusted diet quality indexd
 1st Tertile 1.00 1.00
 2nd Tertile 1.22 (0.99, 1.51) 1.20 (0.97, 1.49)
 3rd Tertile 1.22 (0.97, 1.55) 1.13 (0.90, 1.43)
Energy-adjusted dietary vitamin D intaked
 1st Tertile 1.00
 2nd Tertile 0.95 (0.77, 1.17)  
 3rd Tertile 1.16 (0.97, 1.39)  
  1. aResults were weighted to represent provincial estimates of the grade five student population (age: 10-11y) in Alberta. Multivitamin users were defined as those who used multivitamins irrespective of use of vitamin D supplements
  2. bAdjusted for demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric factors in the table
  3. c26.63 % non-disclosed responses (participants were provided option not to disclose their household income) and 12.23 % missing data
  4. d“Energy adjusted” DQI and dietary vitamin D intake were computed as the residuals from the regression model with total energy intake as the independent variable and absolute DQI or dietary vitamin D intake as the dependent variable as per established criteria [26]
  5. *p <0.05
  6. **p <0.01
  7. ***p <0.001