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Table 2 Determinants of vitamin D supplement use among 10–11-year-old students in Alberta, Canadaa

From: The prevalence and determinants of use of vitamin D supplements among children in Alberta, Canada: a cross-sectional study

  Univariable model Parsimonious modelb
Odds ratio (95 % CI) Odds ratio (95 % CI)
Demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric factors
 Gender   
 Girls 1.00 1.00
 Boys 1.10 (0.91, 1.33) 1.03 (0.85, 1.25)
Parental education
 Secondary or less 1.00 1.00
 College 1.38 (1.06, 1.78)* 1.35 (1.05, 1.74)*
 University or graduate 1.29 (1.00, 1.65)* 1.21 (0.94, 1.56)
Household incomec
 ≤$50,000 1.00 1.00
 $50,001–100,000 1.08 (0.80, 1.47) 1.08 (0.79, 1.48)
 ≥$100,001 1.08 (0.80, 1.48) 1.03 (0.74, 1.43)
Region of residence
 Rural 1.00 1.00
 Urban 1.11 (0.91, 1.37) 1.13 (0.92 1.40)
 Metropolitan 1.27 (1.03, 1.56)* 1.32 (1.06, 1.65)*
Weight status
 Under/normal weight 1.00 1.00
 Overweight 0.80 (0.64, 1.00)* 0.82 (0.66, 1.04)
  Obese 0.91 (0.60, 1.40) 0.93 (0.60, 1.43)
Lifestyle factors
Physical activity level
 1st Tertile 1.00 1.00
 2nd Tertile 1.39 (1.09, 1.77)** 1.39 (1.09, 1.78)**
 3rd Tertile 1.68 (1.33, 2.14)*** 1.70 (1.33, 2.16)***
Energy-adjusted diet quality indexd
 1st Tertile 1.00 1.00
 2nd Tertile 1.16 (0.91, 1.47) 1.12 (0.89, 1.42)
 3rd Tertile 1.18 (0.95, 1.46) 1.10 (0.89, 1.36)
Energy-adjusted dietary vitamin D intaked
 1st Tertile 1.00
 2nd Tertile 0.93 (0.73, 1.19)  
 3rd Tertile 1.03 (0.81, 1.31)  
  1. aResults were weighted to represent provincial estimates of the grade five student population (age: 10-11y) in Alberta. Vitamin D supplement users were defined as those who used vitamin D supplements irrespective of use of multivitamins
  2. bAdjusted for demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric factors in the table
  3. c26.63 % non-disclosed responses (participants were provided option not to disclose their household income) and 12.23 % missing data
  4. d“Energy adjusted” DQI and dietary vitamin D intake were computed as the residuals from the regression model with total energy intake as the independent variable and absolute DQI or dietary vitamin D intake as the dependent variable as per established criteria [26]
  5. *p <0.05
  6. **p <0.01
  7. ***p <0.001