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Table 2 Prevalence of obesity and associated factors in women and men

From: Prevalence of obesity in panama: some risk factors and associated diseases

Variables Women Men
  Prevalence of obesity (%) O.R.a P value Prevalence of obesity (%) O.R.a P value
TOTAL 30.9 (757 / 2450) NA NA 18.3 (193 / 1057) NA NA
Area
 Urban 34.5 (410 / 1188) 1.39 (1.17–1.65) P < 0.0001 23.8 (111 / 467) 1.93 (1.41–2.65) P < 0.0001
 Rural 28.0 (322 / 1148) 0.78 (0.65–0.92) P < 0.05 15.2 (77 / 507) 0.67 (0.49–0.92) P < 0.05
 Indigenous 21.9 (25 / 114) 0.62 (0.38–0.99) P = 0.04 6.0 (5 / 83) 0.27 (0.09–0.70) P = 0.004
Age (years)
 18–29 19.5 (101 / 519) 0.47 (0.37–0.60) P < 0.0001 12.6 (23 / 182) 0.60 (0.36–0.98) P < 0.05
 30–39 33.0 (167 / 506) 1.13 (0.91–1.39) P = 0.25 23.7 (40 / 169) 1.49 (0.98–2.25) P = 0.05
 40–49 38.3 (197/ 514) 1.53 (1.24–1.88) P < 0.0001 23.2 (45 / 194) 1.46 (0.98–2.16) P = 0.05
 50–59 34.9 (156 / 447) 1.25 (1.00–1.56) P < 0.05 21.5 (44 / 205) 1.29 (0.89–1.96) P = 0.19
 60 and over 29.3 (136 / 464) 0.91 (0.73–1.15) P = 0.41 13.3 (41 / 307) 0.61 (0.41–0.90) P < 0.05
Ethnic groups
 Afro-Panamanian 41.9 (228 / 544) 1.88 (1.53–2.30) P < 0.0001 22.5 (45 / 200) 1.39 (0.94–2.06) P = 0.08
 Mestizo 29.6 (389 / 1312) 0.88 (0.74–1.05) P = 0.15 19.9 (116 / 582) 1.29 (0.93–1.79) P = 0.12
 Native 18.0 (47 / 261) 0.46 (0.32–0.64) P < 0.0001 6.0 (7 / 117) 0.26 (0.11–0.58) P < 0.001
 White 29.5 (85 / 288) 0.93 (0.70–1.23) P = 0.59 15.4 (20 / 130) 0.79 (0.46–1.34) P = 0.36
 Asian/Others/Not specified 17.8 (8 / 45) 0.48 (0.20–1.07) P = 0.08 17.9 (5 / 28) 0.97 (0.32–2.74) P = 0.84
Intake of fatty foods
 2 or more fried food daily 18.4 (695 / 2219) 1.22 (0.89–1.38) P = 0.19 18.4 (186 / 1008) 1.36 (0.57–3.36) P = 0.46
 Less of 2 fried food daily 27.1 (63 / 232) 0.82 (0.60–1.11) P = 0.19 14.3 (7 / 49) 0.74 (0.33–1.66) P = 0.46
Intake of beverage / foods rich in sugars
 6 teaspoons per day or more 33.4 (316 / 946) 1.21 (1.01–1.45) P < 0.05 21.7 (80 / 368) 1.42 (1.02–1.97) P < 0.05
 Less of 6 teaspoons per day 29.3 (441 / 1504) 0.83 (0.69–0.98) P < 0.05 19.6 (113 / 576) 0.71 (0.51–0.97) P < 0.05
Physical Activity
 Physically active 25.9 (42 / 167) 0.74 (0.51–1.07) P = 0.09 16.6 (43 / 259) 0.86 (0.58–1.27) P = 0.43
 Insufficient physical activity 26.0 (33 / 127) 0.78 (0.51–1.18) P = 0.22 11.2 (11 / 98) 0.54 (0.27–1.07) P = 0.06
 Physically inactive 31.6 (682 / 2156) 1.35 (1.01–1.80) P < 0.05 19.6 (139 / 700) 1.39 (0.97–1.99) P = 0.06
Family history of obesity
 Yes 46.4 (308 / 663) 2.59 (2.14–3.13) P < 0.0001 32.1 (68 / 212) 2.72 (1.90–3.90) P < 0.0001
 No 25.1 (449 / 1787) 0.39 (0.32–0.47) P < 0.0001 14.8 (125 / 845) 0.38 (0.26–0.51) P < 0.0001
 Do not know / No response 22.6 (14 / 62) NA NA 22.2 (6 / 27) NA NA
Waist Circumference
 >102 cm (Men) NA NA NA 80.0 (155 / 193) 88.8 (53.5–148.4) P < 0.0001
 ≤102 cm     4.3 (39 / 864) 0.01 (0.01–0.02) P < 0.0001
 >94 cm NA NA NA 98.4 (192 / 193) 177.7 (54.4–702.2) P < 0.0001
 ≤94 cm     26.2 (227 / 864) 0.01 (0.0–0.02) P < 0.0001
 >88 cm (Women) 97.9 (741 / 757) 47.5 (28.1–81.6) P < 0.0001 NA NA NA
 ≤88 cm 49.3 (835 / 1692) 0.02 (0.01–0.03) P < 0.0001    
  1. aFor each category of the variables studied, OR and p value were calculated between total of women/men obese and without obesity with relation to the same variable
  2. The analysis was performed independently for women and men
  3. NA: Not applicable
  4. Source: Prepared by the authors. PREFREC 2010–2011
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