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Table 4 Longitudinal analyses of time series data sets (for simplicity only 3 time points are presented)

From: Health and Employment after Fifty (HEAF): a new prospective cohort study

Study question Independent variable Dependent variable Covariate (s)
Effect of work on health
Employment status as a predictor of health decline or improvement E1 ΔH1–2 C1
Job change (e.g., new unemployment, planned retirement) as a predictor of health change ΔE1–2 ΔH2–3 H2, C2
Longer term effects of employment status E1 ΔH2–4, ΔH3–4 H2, C2
ΔE1–2 ΔH2–4, ΔH3–4
Effect of health on work
Health as a predictor of job transition H1 ΔE1–2 C1
Impact of health change on job status ΔH1–2 ΔE2–3 E2, C2