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Table 3 Combined effect sizes and moderator analysesa for intervention effects

From: A gloomy picture: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials reveals disappointing effectiveness of programs aiming at preventing child maltreatment

  K b N d 95 % CI Q homogeneity Q c,d contrast
Total effects on maltreatment 27 4883 0.13** 0.05 ~ 0.21 56.06**  
Intervention characteristics       
Focus       
 Support 13 3742 0.03 −0.04 ~ 0.11 13.28 15.85**
 Parent training 4 421 0.37** 0.15 ~ 0.59 12.45**  
 Parent training and support 6 362 0.37** 0.16 ~ 0.59 5.21  
 Other 4 358 0.17 −0.09 ~ 0.44 2.39  
Location of delivery       1.97
 At participants’ home 17 3731 0.10 −0.00 ~ 0.19 15.19  
 In center 6 628 0.26* 0.05 ~ 0.46 32.16***  
 Both 3 462 0.10 −0.15 ~ 0.36 4.47  
Delivery format       0.16
 Individual 22 4133 0.14** 0.05 ~ 0.23 30.19  
 Individual and group 5 750 0.09 −0.11 ~ 0.29 24.51***  
Duration       6.04*
 < 6 months 5 452 0.22 −0.01 ~ 0.45 4.99  
 6-12 months 11 1204 0.23** 0.10 ~ 0.37 25.01**  
 > 12 months 10 3122 0.04 −0.06 ~ 0.13 12.55  
Sessions       9.65**
 < 16 4 845 0.05 −0.12 ~ 0.23 14.57**  
 16-30 11 726 0.37*** 0.19 ~ 0.56 15.47  
 > 30 7 1998 0.03 −0.10 ~ 0.16 3.51  
Sample characteristics       
Country of origin       0.66
 USA 23   0.11* 0.02 ~ 0.20 45.46**  
 Other 4   0.19* 0.01 ~ 0.37 5.30  
Type of sample       9.31**
 At risk 20 4236 0.05 −0.02 ~ 0.12 21.85  
 Maltreating 6 423 0.35*** 0.17 ~ 0.53 13.18*  
 General population 1 224 0.44** 0.13 ~ 0.75   
Design characteristics       
Intent to treat       1.86
 Yes 20 3349 0.17** 0.07 ~ 0.27 37.19**  
 No 7 1534 0.05 −0.09 ~ 0.19 16.23*  
Blind assessment       2.33
 No 18 3369 0.19** 0.08 ~ 0.29 42.50**  
 Yes 9 1514 0.06 −0.07 ~ 0.18 12.33  
Pre-test       1.55
 No 18 3945 0.09* 0.01 ~ 0.18 38.87**  
 Yes 9 938 0.20** 0.06 ~ 0.35 9.99  
Control condition       1.85
 Other 16 2661 0.18** 0.05 ~ 0.30 30.74*  
 Treatment as usual 7 1011 0.05 −0.12 ~ 0.21 11.36  
Type of measure       3.08
 Self-report 9 1085 0.31** 0.12 ~ 0.49 6.13  
 Other report 13 1764 0.11 −0.02 ~ 0.24 30.36**  
Background characteristics       
Type of publication       
 Journal article 25 4603 0.14** 0.06 ~ 0.23 54.53***  
 Dissertation 2 280 −0.10 −0.42 ~ 0.23 0.08  
  1. k number of study outcomes, N total sample size, d effect size (Cohen’s d), 95 % CI 95 % confidence interval around the point estimate of the effect size, Qhomogeneity homogeneity statistic, Qcontrast moderation statistic
  2. *p < .05, **p < .01, ***p < .001
  3. aOnly categorical moderators are included in the table; the effects of continuous moderators are described in the text
  4. bMissings were excluded from moderator analyses. Therefore, sample sizes range from 22 to 27
  5. cSubgroups with k < 4 excluded from contrast
  6. dAfter controlling for year of publication and sample size, only type of intervention remained a significant moderator
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