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Table 5 Reference and reportable values for blood metals levels (μg/dL)

From: Geographic clustering of elevated blood heavy metal levels in pregnant women

Population Timeframe Measure Cd Hg Pb As
US age 20+ yrs [34] 2011–2012 Geometric Mean (95 % CI) 0.0337 (0.0323–0.0353) 0.0863 (0.0753–0.0990) 1.09 (1.03–1.16) N/A
New York City age 20+ yrs [35] 2004 Geometric Mean (95 % CI) 0.077 (0.075–0.080) 0.273 (0.258–0.289) 1.79 (1.73–1.86) N/A
Pregnant women (3rd trimester) in NC [36] 2009–2011 Geometric Mean (range) 0.0181 (<0.011–0.279) 0.0453 (<0.023–1.178) 0.890 (0.19–7.72) 0.0445 (<0.023–0.858)
Pregnant women (delivery) in Durham County [37] 2005–2010 Geometric Mean (range) 0.033 (0–0.402) N/A N/A N/A
New York State [38] n/a Reportable Value 1 0.5 All N/A
Michigan State [39] n/a Reportable Value 0.5 1.5 5 7
OSHA [40] n/a BEIa 0.5 1.5 30 N/A
CDC [41] n/a Reportable Value for Children and Pregnant Women N/A N/A 5 N/A
  1. aThe Biological Exposure Incides (BEI) are published by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). It is intended to serve as a general guideline for industrial hygienists evaluating biomonitoring results [67]
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