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Table 2 Associations between metal levels and sociodemographic and lifestyle factors

From: Geographic clustering of elevated blood heavy metal levels in pregnant women

Factor Metal Exposure level Cadmium (Cd) Mercury (Hg) Lead (pb) Arsenic (As)
  Reference = low OR (95 % CI), p-value OR (95 % CI), p-value OR (95 % CI), p-value OR (95 % CI), p-value
   N = 300 N = 300 N = 297 N = 300
Smoking Status (Reference = did not smoke during pregnancy) Medium 5.94 (1.27–27.76), 0.0235 0.98 (0.45–2.15), 0.9578 0.91 (0.39–2.14), 0.8333 1.53 (0.66–3.56), 0.3266
High 22.43 (5.02–100.19), <0.0001 0.54 (0.23–1.3), 0.1675 1.81 (0.79–4.16), 0.1612 1.58 (0.71–3.53), 0.2615
   N = 308 N = 308 N = 305 N = 308
Whole Blood Folate (ug/L) Medium 1.00 (1.00–1.00), 0.6557 1.01 (1.00–1.01), 0.0062 1.00 (0.99–1.00), 0.1860 1.00 (1.00–1.00), 0.8695
High 1.00 (0.99–1.00), 0.0091 1.01 (1.00–1.01), 0.0018 1.00 (0.99–1.00), 0.3416 1.00 (1.00–1.00), 0.9863
   N = 302 N = 302 N = 300 N = 302
Leisure-time Physical Activity (Reference = yes) Medium 0.62 (0.32–1.19), 0.1504 0.44 (0.23–0.86), 0.0158 1.00 (0.51–1.95), 0.9968 0.57 (0.29–1.11), 0.0994
High 0.73 (0.38–1.39), 0.3355 0.57 (0.30–1.07), 0.0787 1.18 (0.6–2.31), 0.6306 0.81 (0.43–1.53), 0.5177
   N = 307 N = 307 N = 304 N = 307
Years of Education Medium 0.93 (0.86–1.01), 0.0993 1.05 (0.96–1.15), 0.2633 0.93 (0.85–1.01), 0.0964 0.91 (0.83–1), 0.0380
High 0.83 (0.76–0.91), 0.0001 1.16 (1.07–1.27), 0.0008 0.90 (0.82–0.99), 0.0242 0.88 (0.8–0.96), 0.0048
   N = 307 N = 307 N = 304 N = 307
Pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2) Medium 1.02 (0.98–1.06), 0.4387 1.01 (0.97–1.05), 0.5923 1.01 (0.96–1.05), 0.7774 1.02 (0.98–1.06), 0.3721
High 1.00 (0.96–1.05), 0.9692 0.98 (0.93–1.02), 0.2855 1.01 (0.97–1.06), 0.5335 0.99 (0.95–1.03), 0.5995
  1. Covariates entered in separate models. All models adjusted for maternal race/ethnicity and age
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