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Table 1 Characteristics of pregnant women and blood metals levels (μg/dL)

From: Geographic clustering of elevated blood heavy metal levels in pregnant women

    Cadmium (Cd) Mercury (Hg) Lead (Pb) Arsenic (As)
  N % Geometric Meana Median (IQR) Geometric Meana Median (IQR) Geometric Meana Median (IQR) Geometric Meana Median (IQR)
Overall 310 - 0.03 0.02 (0.01–0.04) 0.03 0.03 (0.01–0.07) 0.38 0.34 (0.16–0.83) 0.05 0.04 (0.04–0.05)
 in Cd Cluster 25 8.1 % 0.05 0.06 (0.02–0.16) 0.02 0.02 (0.00–0.05) 0.51 0.54 (0.23–1.23) 0.05 0.05 (0.04–0.05)
 In Pb Cluster 22 7.1 % 0.04 0.03 (0.02–0.15) 0.02 0.01 (0.01–0.05) 0.42 0.39 (0.24–0.74) 0.05 0.04 (0.04–0.05)
Age at Delivery           
 18–24 98 31.6 % 0.03 0.03 (0.01–0.07) 0.02 0.03 (0.01–0.06) 0.40 0.40 (0.16–0.94) 0.05 0.05 (0.04–0.06)
 25–34 161 51.9 % 0.02 0.02 (0.01–0.04) 0.03 0.04 (0.01–0.08) 0.35 0.29 (0.16–0.74) 0.05 0.04 (0.04–0.05)
  35+ 51 16.5 % 0.02 0.02 (0.01–0.04) 0.03 0.04 (0.02–0.07) 0.42 0.39 (0.17–1.07) 0.05 0.04 (0.04–0.05)
Race/Ethnicity           
 Black 110 35.5 % 0.03 0.03 (0.01–0.06) 0.03 0.04 (0.01–0.07) 0.35 0.33 (0.16–0.79) 0.05 0.04 (0.04–0.05)
 Hispanic 98 31.6 % 0.03 0.02 (0.01–0.09) 0.02 0.03 (0.01–0.06) 0.47 0.50 (0.22–1.07) 0.05 0.04 (0.04–0.05)
 Other 12 3.9 % 0.03 0.03 (0.01–0.08) 0.05 0.05 (0.03–0.13) 0.49 0.55 (0.27–1.02) 0.06 0.05 (0.04–0.10)
 White 90 29.0 % 0.02 0.02 (0.01–0.03) 0.03 0.03 (0.02–0.08) 0.32 0.21 (0.13–0.62) 0.05 0.04 (0.04–0.05)
Years of Education           
 1–11 year 100 32.6 % 0.03 0.03 (0.01–0.10) 0.02 0.02 (0.01–0.05) 0.51 0.53 (0.23–1.01) 0.05 0.05 (0.04–0.05)
 12 years 64 20.8 % 0.03 0.03 (0.01–0.07) 0.03 0.03 (0.01–0.06) 0.34 0.29 (0.18–0.61) 0.05 0.04 (0.04–0.05)
 13–15 years 41 13.4 % 0.03 0.03 (0.02–0.06) 0.04 0.05 (0.02–0.08) 0.36 0.25 (0.16–0.85) 0.05 0.04 (0.04–0.05)
 16+ yrs 102 33.2 % 0.02 0.01 (0.01–0.03) 0.04 0.04 (0.02–0.09) 0.30 0.27 (0.12–0.64) 0.05 0.04 (0.04–0.05)
Pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2)           
 <18.5 12 3.9 % 0.03 0.03 (0.01–0.07) 0.04 0.04 (0.02–0.08) 0.29 0.24 (0.15–0.83) 0.05 0.04 (0.04–0.05)
 18.5–24.9 118 38.4 % 0.02 0.02 (0.01–0.04) 0.03 0.04 (0.01–0.09) 0.38 0.30 (0.14–0.97) 0.05 0.04 (0.04–0.05)
 25–29.9 98 31.9 % 0.03 0.03 (0.01–0.09) 0.02 0.03 (0.01–0.07) 0.40 0.43 (0.20–0.82) 0.05 0.04 (0.04–0.05)
 30–34.9 45 14.7 % 0.02 0.02 (0.01–0.04) 0.03 0.04 (0.02–0.07) 0.28 0.27 (0.15–0.51) 0.05 0.04 (0.04–0.05)
 35+ 34 11.1 % 0.02 0.03 (0.01–0.04) 0.02 0.03 (0.01–0.05) 0.50 0.40 (0.17–1.34) 0.05 0.04 (0.04–0.05)
Whole Blood Folate (ug/L)           
 low: 0–188 100 32.5 % 0.03 0.03 (0.01–0.10) 0.02 0.03 (0.01–0.06) 0.38 0.37 (0.17–0.86) 0.05 0.04 (0.04–0.06)
 medium: 188–263 104 33.8 % 0.03 0.02 (0.01–0.06) 0.03 0.04 (0.01–0.08) 0.43 0.36 (0.20–0.84) 0.05 0.04 (0.04–0.05)
 high: 263–358 104 33.8 % 0.02 0.02 (0.01–0.03) 0.04 0.04 (0.02–0.09) 0.33 0.25 (0.14–0.72) 0.05 0.04 (0.04–0.05)
Smoking Status           
 Did not smoke during pregnancy 254 84.7 % 0.02 0.02 (0.01–0.04) 0.03 0.04 (0.01–0.08) 0.37 0.33 (0.15–0.78) 0.05 0.04 (0.04–0.05)
 Smoked during pregnancy 46 15.3 % 0.05 0.04 (0.03–0.10) 0.02 0.03 (0.01–0.05) 0.38 0.30 (0.18–0.99) 0.05 0.04 (0.04–0.06)
Leisure Time Physical Activity           
 No 77 25.5 % 0.03 0.02 (0.01–0.07) 0.02 0.02 (0.01–0.07) 0.39 0.37 (0.18–0.85) 0.05 0.04 (0.04–0.05)
 Yes 225 74.5 % 0.02 0.02 (0.01–0.04) 0.03 0.04 (0.01–0.07) 0.37 0.31 (0.16–0.82) 0.05 0.04 (0.04–0.05)
  1. aThe geometric mean was calculated using values of the limit of detection (LOD) divided by the square root of 2 when < LOD
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