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Table 2 Results of the multinomial logistic regression models: effects of prior downsizing on depression

From: Depressive symptoms as a cause and effect of job loss in men and women: evidence in the context of organisational downsizing from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health

  Depressive symptoms at follow-up (score 10–16) Major depression at follow-up (score 17–24)
Both sexes (N = 3503) No (Cases) RRR (95 % CI) p value No (Cases) RRR (95 % CI) p value
Baseline depression scores 0–9 (no depression)       
 Employees, no downsizing 1505 (115) 1 (ref.)   1505 (26) 1 (ref.)  
 Downsizing survivors 1143 (114) 1.35 (1.08 to 1.69) 0.007 1143 (24) 1.36 (0.94 to 1.96) 0.105
 Downsizing, displaced workers 136 (21) 2.01 (1.16 to 3.50) 0.013 136 (5) 3.66 (1.65 to 8.08) 0.001
Baseline depression scores 10–16 (depression symptoms)       
 Employees, no downsizing 268 (79) 5.57 (4.44 to 7.00) <0.001 268 (25) 8.43 (5.72 to 12.42) <0.001
 Downsizing survivors 250 (94) 7.54 (5.49 to 10.36) <0.001 250 (27) 11.44 (6.71 to 19.51) <0.001
 Downsizing, displaced workers 42 (10) 11.23 (6.16 to 20.47) <0.001 42 (10) 30.82 (12.67 to 74.98) <0.001
Baseline depression scores 17–24 (major depression)       
 Employees, no downsizing 72 (22) 7.86 (5.21 to 11.85) <0.001 72 (22) 36.03 (22.35 to 58.08) <0.001
 Downsizing survivors 69 (20) 10.63 (6.66 to 16.97) <0.001 69 (24) 48.91 (26.67 to 89.68) <0.001
 Downsizing, displaced workers 18 (7) 15.83 (7.94 to 31.55) <0.001 18 (6) 131.731 (51.45 to 337.28) <0.001
Men (N= 1624)       
Baseline depression scores 0–9 (no depression)       
 Employees, no downsizing 649 (37) 1 (ref.)   649 (7) 1 (ref.)  
 Downsizing survivors 616 (49) 1.42 (0.99 to 2.04) 0.058 616 (7) 1.05 (0.53 to 2.10) 0.890
 Downsizing, displaced workers 82 (10) 1.64 (0.66 to 4.12) 0.290 82 (2) 4.93 (1.23 to 19.69) 0.024
Baseline depression scores 10–16 (depression symptoms)       
 Employees, no downsizing 91 (25) 7.16 (5.00 to 10.26) <0.001 91 (6) 11.46 (5.76 to 22.82) <0.001
 Downsizing survivors 115 (46) 10.17 (6.11 to 16.91) <0.001 115 (8) 12.04 (4.62 to 31.39) <0.001
 Downsizing, displaced workers 23 (5) 11.76 (4.37 to 31.63) <0.001 23 (8) 56.46 (11.52 to 276.58) <0.001
Baseline depression scores 17–24 (major depression)       
 Employees, no downsizing 18 (2) 4.36 (1.95 to 9.76) <0.001 18 (5) 40.33 (16.44 to 98.92) <0.001
 Downsizing survivors 23 (4) 6.19 (2.56 to 14.95) <0.001 23 (7) 42.35 (13.72 to 130.71) <0.001
 Downsizing, displaced workers 7 (3) 7.16 (2.10 to 24.39) 0.002 7 (1) 198.65 (34.61 to 1140.11) <0.001
Women (N= 1879)       
Baseline depression scores 0–9 (no depression)       
 Employees, no downsizing 856 (78) 1 (ref.)   856 (19) 1 (ref.)  
 Downsizing survivors 527 (65) 1.32 (1.00 to 1.76) 0.052 527 (17) 1.59 (1.02 to 2.46) 0.039
 Downsizing, displaced workers 54 (11) 2.12 (1.03 to 4.34) 0.041 54 (3) 3.17 (1.16 to 8.70) 0.025
Baseline depression scores 10–16 (depression symptoms)       
 Employees, no downsizing 177 (54) 4.69 (3.49 to 6.29) <0.001 177 (19) 7.02 (4.38 to 11.27) <0.001
 Downsizing survivors 135 (48) 6.20 (4.12 to 9.33) <0.001 135 (19) 11.14 (5.82 to 21.30) <0.001
 Downsizing, displaced workers 19 (5) 9.92 (4.56 to 21.60) <0.001 19 (2) 22.28 (7.29 to 68.13) <0.001
Baseline depression scores 17–24 (major depression)       
 Employees, no downsizing 54 (20) 9.90 (5.98 to 16.37) <0.001 54 (17) 39.04 (21.81 to 69.89) <0.001
 Downsizing survivors 46 (16) 13.10 (7.33 to 23.40) <0.001 46 (17) 61.91 (29.52 to 129.82) <0.001
 Downsizing, displaced workers 11 (4) 20.96 (8.75 to 50.22) <0.001 11 (5) 123.85 (38.46 to 398.78) <0.001
  1. Note: Dependent variable: level of depression at follow-up. Reference outcome: no depression at follow-up (score 0–9). Analyses adjusted for: demographic (age, gender, education, marital status) and employment variables (permanence of employment as of 2008 and employment in 2010), exposure to past downsizing (2006–2008) and long term sickness. RRR by exposure status were computed as point estimates for linear combination of coefficients after multinomial logistic regression models
  2. RRR relative risk ratios, 95 % CI 95 % confidence interval, No number of persons, total; Cases: persons with the respective scores
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