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Table 1 Decennial change in life expectancy (LE) at birth and contribution of smoking and healthcare expenditures (HCE) in the Netherlands and the mean of 18 other OECD countries, 1990–1999 and 2000–2009

From: Quantifying the contribution of changes in healthcare expenditures and smoking to the reversal of the trend in life expectancy in the Netherlands

  Period Observed change in LE Difference between 1990–1999 and 2000–2009 Change in LE due to changes in smoking Difference between 1990–1999 and 2000–2009 Change in LE due to changes in HCE 95 % CI Difference between 1990–1999 and 2000–2009 95 % CI
Females   The Netherlands
1990–99 0.3   −0.6   0.0 (0.01 to 0.05)   
2000–09 2.1 1.8 −0.4 0.2 1.0 (0.30 to 1.62) 0.9 (0.29 to 1.57)
  Mean of the other countries
1990–99 1.7   −0.1   0.3 (0.09 to 0.52)   
2000–09 1.9 0.2 −0.1 0.0 0.5 (0.14 to 0.77) 0.2 (0.05 to 0.25)
Males   The Netherlands
1990–99 1.5   0.7   0.0 (0.01 to 0.04)   
2000-09 3.0 1.5 0.5 −0.2 0.9 (0.27 to 1.49) 0.9 (0.27 to 1.45)
  Mean of the other countries
1990–99 2.2   0.4   0.3 (0.09 to 0.47)   
2000–09 2.5 0.3 0.3 −0.1 0.4 (0.13 to 0.70) 0.1 (0.00 to 0.20)