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Table 4 Effectiveness of interventions included in the systematic review on reproductive health outcomes of young married women

From: Community based reproductive health interventions for young married couples in resource-constrained settings: a systematic review

Projects ANC Institutional delivery PNC Contraception
Khan et al. 2008 (FP) [23]c     1. Proportions discussing about spacing and family planning (%)
% of couples who discussed family planning methods: Exp. Group (Exp.): 61 % (N = 560); Con. Group (Con): 39 % (N = 570); Sig (p < = 0.001)
% of couples who discussed when to have next child: Exp.: 85 %, con: 85 %; Non Sig Z test, Exp. vs. Con.
2. Contraceptive use at 9 months post-partum
% of women currently using family planning (FP): Exp: 63 %, Con: 32 %; Sig (p < = 0.001)
% currently pregnant: Exp.: 10 %, Con: 16 %; Sig (p < = 0.001) Z test, Exp. vs. Con.
(Data Source: End line Survey)
Santhya et al. 2008 (FTP) [24] Comprehensive antenatal care received by first time mothers: % of first time mothers who reported institutional delivery First time mothers who reported receiving routine checkups within six weeks postpartum 1. Use of contraceptive to delay first birth:
Diamond Harbour (DH): Diamond Harbour (DH): Diamond Harbour (DH): Diamond Harbour (DH) site:
Con; BL: 6.5a; EL: 7.7 (N = 244,500); Sig. Con; BL: 61 %; EL: 70 % (N = 244,500); Sig Con.; BL: 7 %; EL: 27 % (N = 244,500); Sig Con.; Baseline (BL): 54 %; End-line (EL): 66 % (N = 212, 238),
Exp. non-intervention; Exp. non-intervention; Exp. non-intervention; BL: Exp. non-interventionb; BL: 24 %;
BL: 6; EL: 6.9, (N = 206, 191); Sig. BL: 43 %; EL: 49 %, (N = 206, 191); Non sig 6 %; EL: 15 % (N = 206,191); Sig EL: 34 % (N = 94, 281)
Exp. intervention; BL: 6.1; EL: 7.7 (N = 114,460); Non sig Exp. intervention; BL: 40 %; EL: 51 % (N = 114,460); Sig Exp. intervention; BL: 6 %; EL: 45 % (N = 114/460); Sig Exp. intervention; BL: 28 %; EL: 39 % (N = 163, 96)
Vadodara (VD): Vadodara (VD): Vadodara (VD): Vadodara (VD) site:
Con; BL: 6.3; EL: 7.9 (N = 270,314); Sig Con; BL: 56 %; EL: 68 % (N = 270,314); Sig Control; BL: 29 %; EL: 33 % (N = 270/314); Sig Control; BL: 36 %; EL: 13 % (N = 259, 338); Sig
Exp.non-intervention; BL: 7.1; EL: 7.8 (N = 228,159); Sig Exp. non-intervention; BL: 65 %; EL: 77 % (N = 228,159); Sig Exp. non-intervention; BL: 26 %; EL: 49 % (N = 228/159); Sig Exp. non-intervention; BL: 34 %; EL: 11 % (N = 176, 310); Sig
Exp. intervention; BL: 8.3; EL: 8.8 (N = 61,285); Non sig Exp. intervention; BL: 71 %; EL: 70 % (N = 61,285); Non Sig Exp. intervention; BL: 28 %; EL: 51 % (N = 61,285); Sig
Data Source: Baseline End line Survey
Exp. intervention; BL: 18 %; EL: 21 %, Non Sig
Daniel et al. 2008 (PRACHAR) [25]c     1. % of Married women aged 15–24 years who were using contraception
BL; Control: 2.8 %, Intervention: 4.3 %
Follow –up period: Control: 4.7 %, Intervention: 20.7 %, Sig
Interventions vs. Control: (OR: 3.8:1.0; p < 0.001)
2. % increase in median interval (in months) between marriage and first birth:
BL; Intervention area: 21.3 months, Non-intervention areas: NA
EL- Intervention area: 24 months; Non-intervention areas: NA
(Data Source: Baseline and Follow-Up Data)
ACQUIRE, Evaluation and Research Studies Nepal 2008 [26] Women who attended ANC on 4 or more occasions Decrease in proportion of home delivery: Use of PNC increased: Use of postnatal care services by young married women 1. Actual use of contraception to postpone first birth among young married women:
BL: 29.4 % and EL: 49.9 % (N = NA) BL: 75 % and EL: 67 % (N = NA) BL: 20 % and EL: 30 % (N = 240, 269) BL: 4.4 % and EL: 4.8 %, (N = 294, 333)
Note: NA = data on sample size is Not Available (Data Source: Baseline and End line Survey)
CREPHA, Nepal2004 (REWARD Project) [27] Attended 4 or more ANC visits: % of young married women who delivered their last child in hospital:   1. Contraceptive prevalence rate: (%) among young married women
MG area: BL: 24.8 %, EL: 52.9 %; Sig YCAG area: BL-5.9 %, EL: 16.1 % Youth Communication Action Groups (YCAG) area; BL: 26 %, EL: 28 %
Control area: BL: 14.4 %, EL: 43.2 %; Sig Control: BL-2.6 %, EL: 5.3 %
Mothers’ Group (MG) area; BL: 19 %, EL: 37 %
(Data Source: Baseline and End line Survey) Control area; BL: 29 %, EL: 34 %
2. Mean age at pregnancy among young married women
YCAG area; BL: 18.1 %, EL: 18.5 %
MG area; BL: 18.0 %, EL: 18.3 %
Control area; BL: 17.7 %, EL: 17.5 %
Shattuck et al. 2011 (MMM) [28]c     Contraceptive uptake among young men with married or co-habiting partner:
OR for contraceptive uptake among young males between intervention and control groups: OR (95 % CI): 2.4 (1.45,4.03) Sig
OR for increase in communication frequency among young couples between intervention and control groups: OR (95 % CI): 0.61 (0.36, 1.02) Sig
(Data Source: Baseline and Post-Intervention Data)
Note: OR indicates Odds Ratio
Pande et al. (a) 2006 (KEM) [29] Knowledge regarding Regular ANC check-ups    Awareness improved with respect to condom use as a way to prevent STIs and HIV
Pre: 50 %, post: 75 % Note: Data is not available
(Data Source: Pre and Post-Intervention Data)  
Pande et al. (b) 2006 (FRHS) [30] Change in knowledge among young married women on need for ANC check-ups between baseline and end line:    Knowledge on side effects of contraceptive use has increased
Note: Data is not available
Social Mobilization arm (SM) only: 24.2 %, Government Services arm (GS) only: 18.5 %, SM + GS: 12 %, Control: 18.9 %
Change in knowledge among young married women on danger signs of pregnancy between baseline and end line:
SM only: 24.4 %, GS only: 22.5 %, SM + GS: 24.2 %, control: 16.5 %
(Data Source: Baseline and End line Survey)
  1. Exp experimental, Con control, Sig significant, DH Diamond Harbor, VD Vadodara, SM social mobilization, GS government health services, MG mothers group, YCAG youth communication and action group, OR odds ratio
  2. aMean score on index value based on comprehensive antenatal care indicators
  3. bThose residing in the experimental villages but did not participate in the intervention
  4. cDid not include/analyze the data on pregnancy care