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Table 2 Association between criminal victimisation and happiness or life satisfaction

From: Crime and subjective well-being in the countries of the former Soviet Union

  Happinessa Life satisfactionb
Explanatory variables Ordered probit OLS Ordered probit OLS
Victim of physical violencec −0.2956***   −0.5589***   −0.2325***   −0.4687***  
  (0.0687)   (0.1297)   (0.0650)   (0.1287)  
Victim of theftc   −0.0412   −0.0834   −0.0693*   −0.1388*
   (0.0351)   (0.0652)   (0.0345)   (0.0682)
Age (years)         
 18–34 ref. ref. ref. ref. ref. ref. ref. ref.
 35–59 −0.2453*** −0.2440*** −0.4558*** −0.4535*** −0.2334*** −0.2319*** −0.4651*** −0.4619***
  (0.0200) (0.0201) (0.0368) (0.0368) (0.0198) (0.0199) (0.0392) (0.0392)
  ≥ 60 −0.2032*** −0.1979*** −0.3812*** −0.3715*** −0.0966*** −0.0935** −0.1956*** −0.1893***
  (0.0285) (0.0286) (0.0532) (0.0533) (0.0285) (0.0285) (0.0564) (0.0565)
Sex         
 Male ref. ref. ref. ref. ref. ref. ref. ref.
 Female 0.0592*** 0.0609*** 0.1081*** 0.1115*** 0.0027 0.0041 0.0089 0.0115
  (0.0167) (0.0167) (0.0310) (0.0310) (0.0167) (0.0167) (0.0331) (0.0331)
Marital status         
 Married/cohabiting ref. ref. ref. ref. ref. ref. ref. ref.
 Never married −0.1028*** −0.1035*** −0.1856*** −0.1866*** 0.0284 0.0297 0.0511 0.0539
  (0.0223) (0.0223) (0.0411) (0.0412) (0.0225) (0.0226) (0.0444) (0.0445)
 Divorced/widowed −0.3291*** −0.3292*** −0.6276*** −0.6281*** −0.2364*** −0.2352*** −0.4760*** −0.4734***
  (0.0247) (0.0248) (0.0465) (0.0466) (0.0238) (0.0239) (0.0474) (0.0474)
Educationd         
 High ref. ref. ref. ref. ref. ref. ref. ref.
 Middle −0.0778*** −0.0780*** −0.1478*** −0.1482*** −0.1708*** −0.1716*** −0.3397*** −0.3415***
  (0.0185) (0.0185) (0.0341) (0.0342) (0.0187) (0.0187) (0.0367) (0.0367)
 Low −0.1105*** −0.1124*** −0.2107*** −0.2140*** −0.1743*** −0.1753*** −0.3506*** −0.3527***
  (0.0297) (0.0297) (0.0551) (0.0551) (0.0293) (0.0293) (0.0579) (0.0579)
Wealthe         
 High ref. ref. ref. ref. ref. ref. ref. ref.
 Average −0.2198*** −0.2191*** −0.4103*** −0.4093*** −0.2451*** −0.2459*** −0.4895*** −0.4910***
  (0.0199) (0.0199) (0.0366) (0.0366) (0.0202) (0.0202) (0.0397) (0.0397)
Low −0.4329*** −0.4349*** −0.8107*** −0.8152*** −0.4339*** −0.4368*** −0.8660*** −0.8715***
  (0.0223) (0.0224) (0.0411) (0.0412) (0.0227) (0.0227) (0.0445) (0.0445)
Self-rated health         
Good/fair ref. ref. ref. ref. ref. ref. ref. ref.
Poor −0.4347*** −0.4375*** −0.8328*** −0.8387*** −0.5184*** −0.5201*** −1.0492*** −1.0527***
  (0.0244) (0.0245) (0.0460) (0.0462) (0.0238) (0.0239) (0.0471) (0.0472)
Location         
Urban ref. ref. ref. ref. ref. ref. ref. ref.
Rural 0.0812*** 0.0825*** 0.1530*** 0.1554*** 0.0467** 0.0473** 0.0932** 0.0942**
  (0.0173) (0.0174) (0.0323) (0.0323) (0.0173) (0.0173) (0.0342) (0.0342)
Heavy episodic drinkingf         
No ref. ref. ref. ref. ref. ref. ref. ref.
Yes −0.0899*** −0.0914*** −0.1670*** −0.1700*** −0.0771** −0.0787** −0.1533** −0.1563**
  (0.0250) (0.0250) (0.0467) (0.0466) (0.0257) (0.0257) (0.0509) (0.0510)
  1. OLS ordinary least-squares regression, ref. reference category
  2. Data are coefficient (SE). All analyses are adjusted for country
  3. aHappiness was assessed by the question “Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days – would you say you are?” with answers provided on a 10-point scale that ranged from ‘very unhappy’ (scored 1) to ‘very happy ‘(scored 10)
  4. bLife satisfaction was assessed by the question “How satisfied are you with your life as a whole?” with answers provided on a 10-point scale that ranged from ‘not at all satisfied ‘(scored 1) to ‘extremely satisfied ‘(scored 10)
  5. cRefers to events which occurred in the past 12 months
  6. dEducation was classified as: low (less than complete secondary education), middle (complete secondary education), high (incomplete or complete higher education)
  7. ePrincipal component analysis was used to generate a wealth index based on the possession of 10 household assets
  8. fHeavy episodic drinking was defined as consumption of at least one of the following on one occasion: ≥2 l of beer, ≥750 g of wine, or ≥200 g of strong spirits
  9. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
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