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Table 1 Characteristics (demographic and behaviours) for total sample and by country

From: Associations between parental rules, style of communication and children’s screen time

  Belgium Germany Greece Hungary Norway Total sample
N = 728 N = 609 N = 722 N = 658 N = 583 N = 3300
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
Age 10.9 (0.71) 11.2 (0.77) 10.8 (0.63) 11.6 (0.69) 11.9 (0.57) 11.2 (0.78)
Gender, children (%)       
Girl 52.1 47.9 54.7 50.3 50.3 51.2
Gender, parents (%)       
Mother 81.9 80.9 80.7 87.2 74.9 81.3
Family educational level;       
At least one parent ≥ 14 years of education (%) 88.1 47.9 61.7 48.6 71.4 63.7
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
Time spent watching TV/DVD in leisure time, hours/day 1.55 (0.93) 1.53 (0.98) 1.84 (1.01) 1.69 (1.09) 1.53 (0.94) 1.63 (1.00)
Time spent using a computer/games console for leisure activities, hours/day 0.93 (0.90) 1.04 (0.99) 1.24 (1.01) 1.36 (1.16) 1.30 (1.02) 1.17 (1.03)
Child reported perceived excessive screen time (%)1       
- TV/DVD 57.4 25.5 26.0 42.3 33.8 37.5
- Computer/games console 36.1 15.4 28.3 35.0 31.3 29.5
Parent reported perceived excessive screen time (%)1       
- TV/DVD 50.3 34.1 35.4 44.9 42.2 41.6
- Computer/games console 38.8 24.7 33.3 42.3 45.6 36.8
Rules present       
- TV/DVD: Yes 55.6 48.4 64.1 58.7 39.8 54.0
- Computer/games console: Yes 53.4 43.8 66.1 66.2 43.9 55.3
  1. SD standard deviation
  2. N vary slightly, n for gender is presented
  3. 1Fully and partly agree that child spends too much time in front of screen, combined