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Table 3 Risk factors for external deaths among children

From: Patterns and risk factors for deaths from external causes in rural Malawi over 10 years: a prospective population-based study

Variable Cases (%) Control (%) Odds ratioa P-valueb
(n = 47) (n = 1000) (95 % CI)
Sex (matched)     
 Male 22 (46.8) 480 (48.0)   
 Female 25 (53.2) 520 (52.0)   
Main household income     
 Farming 11 (23.4) 411 (41.1) Reference  
 Fishing 5 (10.6) 60 (6.0) 3.07 (1.03–9.10 0.04
 Business/other 17 (36.2) 385 (38.5) 1.74 (0.80–3.82) 0.17
 Missing 14 (29.7) 144 (14.4)   
Dwelling construction     
 Best 9 (19.2) 174 (17.4) 1.48 (0.59–3.76) 0.41
 2 4 (8.5) 153 (15.3) 0.73 (0.22–2.38) 0.61
 3 10 (21.3) 289 (28.9) Reference  
 Worst 11 (23.4) 236 (23.6) 1.36 (0.56–3.28) 0.49
 Missing 13 (27.7) 148 (14.8)   
Not having enough food     
 No 14 (29.8) 407 (40.7) Reference  
 Yes 6 (12.8) 139 (13.9) 1.27 (0.48–3.36) 0.64
 Missing 27 (57.5) 454 (45.4)   
Father’s level of schooling     
 None/primary 15 (31.9) 348 (34.8) Reference  
 Secondary 5 (10.6) 255 (25.5) 0.44 (0.16–1.22) 0.11
 Missing 27 (57.5) 397 (39.7)   
Mother’s level of schooling     
 None/primary 18 (38.3) 481 (48.1) Reference  
 Secondary 3 (6.4) 162 (16.2) 0.49 (0.14–1.72) 0.27
 Missing 26 (55.3) 357 (35.7)   
Individual’s level of schooling     
 None 12 (25.5) 235 (23.5) Reference  
 Any schooling 13 (27.7) 321 (32.1) 0.15 (0.03–0.81) 0.03
 Pre-schoolc 20 (42.6) 423 (42.3) 2.34 (0.48–11.3) 0.29
 Missing 2 (4.3) 21 (2.1)   
  1. aOdds ratio with 95 % confidence interval controlled for age, sex and time period (by matching and conditional logistic regression)
  2. bP-value: result of Wald test of association of each category
  3. cChildren under 5 years who had not yet attained school-going age
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