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Table 1 Rates of death from external causes in Karonga District Malawi, 2002–12

From: Patterns and risk factors for deaths from external causes in rural Malawi over 10 years: a prospective population-based study

  All external causes Road injury Drowning Suicide
Ratea Rate ratioc Rate Rate ratio Rate Rate ratio Rate Rate ratio
(95 % CIb) (95 % CI) (95 % CI) (95 % CI) (95 % CI) (95 % CI) (95 % CI) (95 % CI)
Gender         
Male 64.7 (53.2–78.8) Reference 12.4 (7.9–19.5) Reference 13.1 (8.4–21.8) Reference 11.1 (6.9–17.9) Reference
Female 27.1 (20.1–36.4) 0.40 (0.28–0.57) 4.3 (2.1–9.0) 0.32 (0.14–0.77) 4.3 (2.1–9.0) 0.36 (0.16–0.81) 3.1 (1.3–7.4) 0.26 (0.09–0.70)
Age         
<5 years 47.1 (32.5–68.2) 0.99 (0.63–1.56) 3.4 (0.8–13.4) 0.27 (0.06–1.20) 13.4 (6.7–26.9) 1.83 (0.70–4.73) 0  
5–14 20.6 (13.1–32.2) 0.44 (0.26–0.73) 2.2 (0.5–8.7) 0.18 (0.04–0.77) 6.5 (2.9–14.5) 0.87 (0.31–2.46) 0  
15–44 46.8 (35.8–60.0) Reference 12.0 (7.2–19.9) Reference 7.2 (3.7–13.8) Reference 13.6 (5.4–31.2) Reference
45+ 98.7 (71–135.7) 2.23 (1.48–3.36) 18.2 (8.7–38.2) 1.60 (0.65–3.92 10.4 (3.9–27.7) 1.52 (0.47–4.94) 13.0 (5.4–31.2) 1.01 (0.37–2.74)
Period         
2002/6 49.7 (38–64.8) 1.14 (0.81–1.60) 7.4 (3.7–14.7) 0.84 (0.35–1.92) 6.4 (3.1–13.5) 0.66 (0.28–1.56) 3.7 (1.4–9.8) 0.42 (0.14–1.22)
2007/12 43.0 (35.0–53.0) Reference 8.7 (5.5–13.8) Reference 9.7 (6.2–15.0) Reference 8.7 (5.5–13.8) Reference
  1. aRate expressed per 100,000 person-years-at-risk
  2. bCI: Confidence Interval
  3. cRate ratio adjusted for age, sex and calendar period
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